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OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in British young people (4-18 years) in 1997. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people. SETTING Great Britain. SUBJECTS Nationally representative sample of 1836 young people (age 4-18 years). RESULTS The prevalence of obesity based on(More)
Over 20 severely obese subjects in 11 independent kindreds have been reported to have pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), making this the most common known monogenic cause of human obesity. To date, the detailed clinical phenotype of this dominantly inherited disorder has not been defined, and no(More)
Insufficient energy compensation after a preload (meal, snack, or beverage) has been associated with excess energy intake, but experimental studies have used heterogeneous methodologies, making energy compensation difficult to predict. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the relative contributions of two key variables, preload physical form and(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin sensitivity (Si) is improved by weight loss and exercise, but the effects of the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or carbohydrates of high glycemic index (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) are uncertain. OBJECTIVE We conducted a dietary intervention trial to study these effects in(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe levels of physical activity, sedentary time and adherence to Chief Medical Officers (CMO) physical activity guidelines among primary school-aged children across the UK using objective accelerometer-based measurements. DESIGN Nationally representative prospective cohort study. SETTING Children born across the UK, between 2000 and(More)
BACKGROUND Specific dietary risk factors for excess adiposity in young people are poorly understood. However, studies in adults suggest dietary energy density, fat and fibre are critical dietary factors. OBJECTIVE To examine longitudinal relationships between a dietary pattern (DP) characterised by dietary energy density, % total energy from fat and fibre(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432(More)
Previous studies have shown that a combination of weight loss and fish oil supplementation reduce cardiovascular disease and diabetes risks by increasing adiponectin and reducing triacylglyceride concentrations, while weight loss alone significantly improves insulin sensitivity and reduces inflammation. Here, a metabolomic approach, using a combination of(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie(More)