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Human colonic cancer cells (HT-29, 10 7 cells/dose) were injected subcutaneously between the scapulae of 19 severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. After 19 days, large tumours had developed in 18 out of the 19 animals and the mice were then killed. Metastases were detected in the lungs of 16 animals but not in other organs investigated. Surgical(More)
Several studies have shown binding of a variety of lectins to breast cancer cells in tissue sections. In particular, binding of the lectin from the Roman snail, Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), to breast cancer cells is linked with a poor prognosis. The molecular basis for lectin binding to metastatic breast cancers is not known. To elucidate this in a model(More)
INTRODUCTION Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been implicated in several disease processes and elevated levels are found in many pathological conditions. The detection and accurate measurement of MPs, although attracting widespread interest, is hampered by a lack of standardisation. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable flow(More)
Axillary lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer is the most accurate predictor of long-term prognosis. However, in patients treated by conservative surgery lymph node status often remains unknown. We have investigated the relation between changes in glycosylation of primary breast cancer cells, as judged by lectin binding, and the(More)
Over-expression of N-acetylgalactosamine glycoproteins as detected by binding of the lectin from Helix pomatia (HPA), is associated with metastatic competence and poor patient prognosis in a range of human adenocarcinomas. These glycoproteins remain poorly characterised, and their functional role has yet to be elucidated. This study describes(More)
Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells leave the primary tumour, disseminate and form secondary tumours at anatomically distant sites, is a serious clinical problem as it is disseminated disease, which is often impossible to eradicate successfully, that causes the death of most cancer patients. Metastasis results from a complex molecular cascade(More)
One of the commonest and least well understood posttranslational modifications of proteins is their glycosylation. Human glycoproteins are glycosylated with a bewilderingly heterogeneous array of complex N- and O-linked glycans, which are the product of the coordinated activity of enzymes resident in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the(More)
The prognosis for the majority of patients suffering from a solid neoplasm remains bleak, due to the fact that most cancers have already formed metastases at distant sites. Any progress in cancer therapy will, therefore, depend on the understanding of the metastatic cascade and therapies derived from this understanding. The development of clinically(More)
Enzymes may be useful as highly specific histochemical probes to identify and localize macromolecular substrates in tissue sections. We have used glucose oxidase, a double-headed enzyme, to demonstrate β-glucosyl groups in paraffin sections. Native glucose oxidase has two active sites per molecule. Soluble polymers formed by glutaraldehyde combine many(More)
Lectins are naturally occurring carbohydrate-binding molecules. A very wide range of purified lectins are commercially available which exhibit a diversity of carbohydrate-binding preferences. They can be used in the laboratory to detect carbohydrate structures on, or in, cells and tissues in much the same way that purified antibodies can be employed to(More)