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The bladder urothelium exhibits dynamic sensory properties that adapt to changes in the local environment. These studies investigated the localization and function of bradykinin receptor subtypes B1 and B2 in the normal and inflamed (cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis) bladder urothelium and their contribution to lower urinary tract function in the(More)
Neural-epithelial interactions are hypothesized to play an important role in bladder function. We determined whether spinal cord injury (SCI) altered several indicators of urinary bladder epithelium barrier function, including continuity of the surface umbrella cell layer, transepithelial resistance (TER), and urea and water permeability. Within 2 h of SCI,(More)
Lipid bilayers and biological membranes are freely permeable to CO(2), and yet partial CO(2) pressure in the urine is 3-4-fold higher than in blood. We hypothesized that the responsible permeability barrier to CO(2) resides in the umbrella cell apical membrane of the bladder with its dense array of uroplakin complexes. We found that disrupting the uroplakin(More)
Although water, small nonelectrolytes, and gases are freely permeable through most biological membranes, apical membranes of certain barrier epithelia exhibit extremely low permeabilities to these substances. The role of integral membrane proteins in this barrier function has been unclear. To study this problem, we have ablated the mouse gene encoding(More)
Unique barrier properties of the urothelial surface membrane permit urine storage. Interstitial cystitis causes disabling dysuria, and frequency. Similarly, feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) occurs in cats. These studies define the permeability and structural properties of normal and FIC urothelium. To determine the effects of bladder filling, groups were(More)
The mammalian bladder maintains high electrochemical gradients between urine and blood, permitting the kidney to modify body chemistries through urinary excretion. To perform this function, the urothelium maintains a tight permeability barrier. When this barrier is damaged, leakage of urine components into the underlying bladder layers results, with(More)
Urinary bladder cystitis occurs in patients receiving radiation therapy for pelvic tumors. Radiation-induced formation of superoxide radicals is believed to damage the urothelium, exposing the underlying bladder smooth muscle to urine, culminating in nerve irritation and muscle dysfunction. We tested whether overexpression of MnSOD could decrease superoxide(More)
The existence of mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (mtNOS) has been controversial since it was first reported in 1995. We have addressed this issue by making direct microsensor measurements of NO production in the mitochondria isolated from mouse hearts. Mitochondrial NO production was stimulated by Ca2+ and inhibited by blocking electrogenic Ca2+(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel technique that enables noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissues. Because of its high resolution (approximately 10 microm), superior dynamic range (140 dB in our case) and up to 2-3 mm penetration depth, OCT is potentially useful for noninvasive screening of superficial lesions. Bladder cancer(More)
Although most cell membranes permit rapid flux of water, small nonelectrolytes, and ammonia, the apical membranes of bladder epithelial umbrella cells, which form the bladder permeability barrier, exhibit strikingly low permeabilities to these substances. In cystitis, disruption of the bladder permeability barrier may irritate the bladder wall layers(More)