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This paper uses fundamental principles of energy physiology to define minimum cut-off limits for energy intake below which a person of a given sex, age and body weight could not live a normal life-style. These have been derived from whole-body calorimeter and doubly-labelled water measurements in a wide range of healthy adults after due statistical(More)
BACKGROUND Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major(More)
The fundamental principles of energy physiology were used to evaluate the validity of reported energy intake (EI) in 37 published dietary studies of adults providing 68 subgroups when classified according to sex and dietary method. EI was expressed as a multiple of BMR estimated using the reported heights and weights of the study populations (EI:BMR(est)).(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are inter-related. Both weight-loss and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are independently known to reduce metabolic risk, but the combined effects are unclear. OBJECTIVE This study examines whether addition of LC n-3 PUFA to a low fat/high(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in British young people (4-18 years) in 1997. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people. SETTING Great Britain. SUBJECTS Nationally representative sample of 1836 young people (age 4-18 years). RESULTS The prevalence of obesity based on(More)
Over 20 severely obese subjects in 11 independent kindreds have been reported to have pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), making this the most common known monogenic cause of human obesity. To date, the detailed clinical phenotype of this dominantly inherited disorder has not been defined, and no(More)
Body mass index (BMI) is the cornerstone of the current classification system for obesity and its advantages are widely exploited across disciplines ranging from international surveillance to individual patient assessment. However, like all anthropometric measurements, it is only a surrogate measure of body fatness. Obesity is defined as an excess(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie(More)
The Tanita body-fat analyser is a novel device to estimate body fat, based on the principles of bioelectrical impedance. It differs from other impedance systems which use surface electrodes in that the subjects stand bare-footed on a metal sole-plate which incorporates the electrodes, hence impedance is measured through the legs and lower trunk. In 104 men(More)