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This paper uses fundamental principles of energy physiology to define minimum cut-off limits for energy intake below which a person of a given sex, age and body weight could not live a normal life-style. These have been derived from whole-body calorimeter and doubly-labelled water measurements in a wide range of healthy adults after due statistical(More)
The fundamental principles of energy physiology were used to evaluate the validity of reported energy intake (EI) in 37 published dietary studies of adults providing 68 subgroups when classified according to sex and dietary method. EI was expressed as a multiple of BMR estimated using the reported heights and weights of the study populations (EI:BMR(est)).(More)
BACKGROUND Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major(More)
This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific(More)
The wide range of phenotypic abnormalities seen in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse and their reversibility by leptin administration provide compelling evidence for the existence of multiple physiological functions of this hormone in rodents. In contrast, information regarding the roles of this hormone in humans is limited. Three morbidly obese children,(More)
Objective:To refine the diagnosis of childhood obesity by creating new sex-specific centile curves for body fat and to base these references on a simple and affordable method that could be widely adopted in clinical practice and surveys.Design:Body fat was measured by bio-impedance in 1985 Caucasian children aged 5–18 years from schools in Southern England.(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie(More)
Background:The problems of adherence to energy restriction in humans are well known.Objective:To compare the feasibility and effectiveness of intermittent continuous energy (IER) with continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic disease risk markers.Design:Randomized comparison of a 25% energy restriction as(More)
1. Body composition was assessed in 28 healthy subjects (body mass index 20-28 kg/m2) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, deuterium dilution, densitometry, 40K counting and four prediction methods (skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance, near-i.r. interactance and body mass index). Three- and four-component models of body composition were constructed(More)