Susan A. Holechek

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Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used more extensively for human immunization than any other vaccine. For almost two centuries, VACV was employed to provide cross-protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, until the disease was eradicated in the late 1970s. Since that time, continued research on VACV has produced a number of modified(More)
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although 70% of patients with localized disease are cured with chemotherapy and surgical resection, patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) limit the development of metastatic(More)
Post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) has been suggested to be effective in minimizing death if administered within four days of smallpox exposure. While there is anecdotal evidence for efficacy of post-exposure vaccination this has not been definitively studied in humans. In this study, we analyzed post-exposure prophylaxis using several(More)
While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144) have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC(More)
To decrease virulence, we deleted the E3L gene, which is required for interferon-resistance and virulence, and replaced it with a gene from Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV, the new virus is NYVAC-C+12-ATV), which restores a single round of replication. Results In vitro characterization of the constructs demonstrates restoration of replication in primary and(More)
In November 2015, El Salvador reported their first case of Zika virus (Zv) leading to an explosive outbreak that in just two months had over 6000 suspected cases. Many communities along with national agencies initiated the process to implement control measures that ranged from vector control and the use of repellents to the suggestion of avoiding(More)
Osteosarcomas remain one of the most commonly occurring bone cancers in adolescents, accounting for approximately 3% of all diagnosed childhood malignancies. Approximately 30% of osteosarcoma patients develop pulmonary metastatic disease, which is associated with poor prognosis, as 5-year survival rates for these patients are less than 20%. Cytotoxic(More)
The New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) vaccinia virus (VACV) vaccine strain was deleted for the immune evasion gene, E3L, and tested for its pathogenicity and ability to protect mice from heterologous challenge with ectromelia virus (ECTV). NYCBHΔE3L was found to be highly attenuated for pathogenicity in a newborn mouse model and showed a similar(More)
A two-patch mathematical model of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) that accounts for vectors’ vertical transmission and between patches human dispersal is introduced. Dispersal is modeled via a Lagrangian approach. A host-patch residence-times basic reproduction number is derived and conditions under which the disease dies out or persists are established.(More)
In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8+ T cell responses during vaccination and(More)