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PURPOSE To describe the refractive error and ocular components of a large group of school-aged children as a function of age and gender. METHODS In this report, we describe the refractive error and ocular components of 2583 school-aged children (49.3% girls, overall mean [+/-SD] age 10.0 +/- 2.3). Measurement methods included cycloplegic autorefraction,(More)
PURPOSE To assess the validity and reliability of the revised Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) in adults aged 19-30 years. The CISS was developed to be the primary outcome measure for studies evaluating various treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI). METHODS CISS mean scores from adults with symptomatic CI and adults with normal(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the frequency of convergence insufficiency (CI) and its related clinical characteristics among 9- to 13-year-old children. METHODS Fifth and sixth graders were screened in school settings at three different study sites. Eligible children with 20/30 or better visual acuity, minimal refractive error, no strabismus, and exophoria at near(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years. METHODS At 49 clinical sites, 507 patients with amblyopic eye visual acuity ranging from 20/40 to 20/400 were provided with optimal optical correction and then randomized to a treatment group (2-6 hours per day of prescribed patching combined with near visual(More)
PURPOSE To determine the utility of a child's first grade refractive error and parental history of myopia as predictors of myopia onset between the second and eighth grades. METHODS Subjects were nonmyopic children in the first grade who were enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Myopia was(More)
Amblyopia is an example of abnormal visual development that is clinically defined as a reduction of best corrected Snellen acuity to less than 6/9 (20/30) in one eye or a two-line difference between the two eyes, with no visible signs of eye disease. We describe a sequential management program for anisometropic amblyopia that consists of four steps: (1) the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for astigmatism in a population-based sample of preschool children. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from Los Angeles County, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. METHODS A cross-sectional study of children participating in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare vision therapy/orthoptics, pencil push-ups, and placebo vision therapy/orthoptics as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children 9 to 18 years of age. METHODS In a randomized, multicenter clinical trial, 47 children 9 to 18 years of age with symptomatic convergence insufficiency were randomly assigned to receive(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes. METHODS Subjects were 605 children 6 to 14 years of age who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 374 emmetropic (between -0.25 D and(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating(More)