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The overall shape of plants, the space they occupy above and below ground, is determined principally by the number, length, and angle of their lateral branches. The function of these shoot and root branches is to hold leaves and other organs to the sun, and below ground, to provide anchorage and facilitate the uptake of water and nutrients. While in some(More)
Lateral branches in higher plants are often maintained at specific angles with respect to gravity, a quantity known as the gravitropic setpoint angle (GSA) [1]. Despite the importance of GSA control as a fundamental determinant of plant form, the mechanisms underlying gravity-dependent angled growth are not known. Here we address the central questions of(More)
The history of research on gravitropism has been largely confined to the primary root-shoot axis and to understanding how the typically vertical orientation observed there is maintained. Many lateral organs are gravitropic too and are often held at specific non-vertical angles relative to gravity. These so-called gravitropic setpoint angles (GSAs) are(More)
Root and shoot branches are major determinants of plant form and critical for the effective capture of resources below and above ground. These branches are often maintained at specific angles with respect to gravity, known as gravitropic set point angles (GSAs). We have previously shown that the mechanism permitting the maintenance of non-vertical GSAs is(More)
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