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To investigate protective immunity conferred by CTL against viral pathogens, we have analyzed CD8(+) T cell responses to the immunodominant nucleoprotein epitope (NP(366-374)) of influenza A virus in B6 mice during primary and secondary infections in vivo. Unlike the highly biased TCR Vbeta repertoire, the associated Valpha repertoire specific for the(More)
It is well recognized that base sequence exerts a significant influence on the properties of DNA and plays a significant role in protein-DNA interactions vital for cellular processes. Understanding and predicting base sequence effects requires an extensive structural and dynamic dataset which is currently unavailable from experiment. A consortium of(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations including water and counterions on B-DNA oligomers containing all 136 unique tetranucleotide basepair steps are reported. The objective is to obtain the calculated dynamical structure for at least two copies of each case, use the results to examine issues with regard to convergence and dynamical stability of MD on DNA,(More)
We describe herein a computationally intensive project aimed at carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations including water and counterions on B-DNA oligomers containing all 136 unique tetranucleotide base sequences. This initiative was undertaken by an international collaborative effort involving nine research groups, the "Ascona B-DNA Consortium"(More)
Noncovalent association of proteins to specific target sites on DNA--a process central to gene expression and regulation--has thus far proven to be idiosyncratic and elusive to generalizations on the nature of the driving forces. The spate of structural information on protein--DNA complexes sets the stage for theoretical investigations on the molecular(More)
Recent studies of DNA axis curvature and flexibility based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on DNA are reviewed. The MD simulations are on DNA sequences up to 25 base pairs in length, including explicit consideration of counterions and waters in the computational model. MD studies are described for ApA steps, A-tracts, for sequences of A-tracts with(More)
The usefulness of free-energy calculations in non-academic environments, in general, and in the pharmaceutical industry, in particular, is a long-time debated issue, often considered from the angle of cost/performance criteria. In the context of the rational drug design of low-affinity, non-peptide inhibitors to the SH2 domain of the (pp60)src tyrosine(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on the A6 containing DNA dodecamers d(GGCAAAAAACGG) solved by NMR and d(CGCAAAAAAGCG) solved by crystallography. The experimental structures differ in the direction of axis bending and in other small but important aspects relevant to the DNA curvature problem. Five nanosecond MD simulations of each(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 5 ns on protein-DNA complexes of catabolite-activator protein (CAP), lambda-repressor, and their corresponding uncomplexed protein and DNA, are reported. These cases represent two extremes of DNA bending, with CAP DNA bent severely and the lambda-operator nearly straight when complexed with protein. The calculations(More)
Detailed analyses of the sequence-dependent solvation and ion atmosphere of DNA are presented based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on all the 136 unique tetranucleotide steps obtained by the ABC consortium using the AMBER suite of programs. Significant sequence effects on solvation and ion localization were observed in these simulations. The results(More)