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Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant bacteria have evolved various strategies to adapt to low temperature. One important strategy, which is crucial to the survival of the cell at low temperature, relates to the ability of the cell to modulate the fluidity of the membrane. Bacteria in general modulate membrane fluidity by altering their fatty acid composition.(More)
Acyl-lipid desaturases are enzymes that convert a C-C single bond into a C=C double bond in fatty acids that are esterified to membrane-bound glycerolipids. Four types of acyl-lipid desaturase, namely DesA, DesB, DesC, and DesD, acting at the Delta12, Delta15, Delta9, and Delta6 positions of fatty acids respectively, have been characterized in(More)
Twelve strains of psychrophilic bacteria were isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples collected from various water bodies in the McMurdo Dry Valley region of Antarctica. All the isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid, psychrophilic, halotolerant bacteria and had C(16 : 1)omega7c, C(17 : 1)omega8c and C(18 : 1)omega9c as the major fatty acids,(More)
The generation of robust T-cell-dependent humoral immune responses requires the formation and expansion of germinal center structures within the follicular regions of the secondary lymphoid tissues. B-cell proliferation in the germinal center drives ongoing antigen-dependent selection and the generation of high-affinity class-switched plasma and memory B(More)
B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA) to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax) consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be(More)
The marginal zone is a cellular niche bordering the marginal sinus of the spleen that contains specialized B-cell and macrophage subsets poised to capture bloodborne antigens. Marginal zone B cells are retained in this niche by integrin-mediated signaling induced by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and, likely, the B-cell receptor (BCR).(More)
Antarctic psychrotolerant, Nostoc sp. (SO-36), when grown at 25 degrees C and then shifted to 10 degrees C, showed an increase in the tri-unsaturated fatty acid [C(18:3(9,12,15))] at the expense of mono- [C(18:1(9))] and di-unsaturated [C(18:2(9,12))] fatty acids. These results indicate that the activities of the enzymes DesA and DesB are up-regulated, when(More)
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