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Large particles containing nitric acid (HNO3) were observed in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter stratosphere. These in situ observations were made over a large altitude range (16 to 21 kilometers) and horizontal extent (1800 kilometers) on several airborne sampling flights during a period of several weeks. With diameters of 10 to 20 micrometers, these(More)
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number(More)
[1] Large (>2 mm diameter) HNO 3-containing polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles were measured in situ by the NOAA NO y instrument on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft during seven flights in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter vortex. Here we discuss the detection of these large PSC particles, their spatial distribution, the ambient conditions under which they(More)
A sensitive laser spectrometer, named IRIS (water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer), was developed for the in situ detection of the isotopic composition of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Isotope ratio measurements can be used to quantify troposphere-stratosphere exchange, and to study the water chemistry in the(More)
Aircraft-based aerosol sampling in clouds is complicated by the generation of shatter artifact particles from aerodynamic or im-paction breakup of cloud droplets and ice particles in and around the aerosol inlet. Aerodynamic breakup occurs when the Weber number of a droplet, which primarily depends on the droplet size and the magnitude of the relative(More)
To effectively use a passive sampler for monitoring trace contaminants in the gas-phase, its sampling characteristics as a function of ambient wind conditions must be known. In this study two commonly used passive samplers were evaluated using computational fluid dynamics. Contaminant uptake by the polyurethane foam (PUF) was modeled using a species(More)
Design and analysis of a new low-noise, fast-response, high-sensitivity, compact electrometer are described. This electrometer are battery operated and capable of measuring currents down to the femtoampere level. The portable, high performance nature of the electrometer renders it applicable for deployment in compact instruments for applications such as(More)
In this work a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to predict the deposition of particles on a newly designed passive dry deposition (Pas-DD) sampler. The sampler uses a parallel plate design and a conventional polyurethane foam (PUF) disk as the deposition surface. The deposition of particles with sizes between 0.5 and(More)