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Large particles containing nitric acid (HNO3) were observed in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter stratosphere. These in situ observations were made over a large altitude range (16 to 21 kilometers) and horizontal extent (1800 kilometers) on several airborne sampling flights during a period of several weeks. With diameters of 10 to 20 micrometers, these(More)
Aircraft-based aerosol sampling in clouds is complicated by the generation of shatter artifact particles from aerodynamic or im-paction breakup of cloud droplets and ice particles in and around the aerosol inlet. Aerodynamic breakup occurs when the Weber number of a droplet, which primarily depends on the droplet size and the magnitude of the relative(More)
A design and results for an instrument with a quantum cascade laser and an antimonide diode laser to measure simultaneously and with high precision seven isotopologues of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Methods and results for determining the effects that limit absorption noise at the level of 5x10 −6 are presented and discussed. New frontiers in quantum(More)
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