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e introduce a profit maximization version of the well-known Wagner-Whitin model for the deterministic uncapacitated single-item lot-sizing problem with lost sales. Demand cannot be backlogged, but it does not have to be satisfied, either. Costs and selling prices are assumed to be time-variant, differentiating our model from previous models with lost sales.(More)
Recent research in organic photovoltaic (OPV) is largely focused on developing low cost OPV materials such as graphene. However, graphene sheets (GSs) blended conjugated polymers are known to show inferior OPV characteristics as compared to fullerene adduct blended with conjugated polymer. Here, we demonstrate that graphene quantum dots blended with(More)
We successfully demonstrate inverted structure small-molecule (SM) solar cells with an efficiency of 7.88% using ZnO and PEIE as an interfacial layer. Modification of ZnO with a cost-effective PEIE thin layer increases the efficiency of the inverted cell as a result of reducing the work function of the cathode and suppressing the trap-assisted(More)
We report Barium (Ba) cathode layer for bulk-heterojunction solar cells which enhanced the fill factor (FF) of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM BHJ solar cell up to 75.1%, one of the highest value reported for an organic solar cell. The external quantum efficiency exceeds 80%. Analysis of recombination mechanisms using the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics at(More)