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The management of CNS tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vascular interface that restricts the passage of most molecules from the blood into the brain. Here we show that phage particles targeted with certain ligand motifs selected in vivo from a combinatorial peptide library can cross the BBB under normal and pathological conditions.(More)
Epigenetic modifications mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the mechanisms of different neurologic diseases and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promise in therapy. However, pharmacodynamic profiles of many HDACIs in the brain remain largely unknown due to the lack of validated methods for noninvasive imaging of HDAC(More)
The importance of the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in the development and progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) is widely recognized. Gene sequencing studies revealed that a majority of tumors responding to EGFR kinase inhibitors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR kinase domain. This underscores the need for novel biomarkers and(More)
Merging tumor targeting and molecular-genetic imaging into an integrated platform is limited by lack of strategies to enable systemic yet ligand-directed delivery and imaging of specific transgenes. Many eukaryotic viruses serve for transgene delivery but require elimination of native tropism for mammalian cells; in contrast, prokaryotic viruses can be(More)
RATIONALE Human CD34(+) cells have been used in clinical trials for treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is unknown how long the CD34(+) cells persist in hearts, whether the improvement in cardiac function is sustained, or what are the underlying mechanisms. OBJECTIVE We sought to track the fate of injected human CD34(+) cells in the(More)
INTRODUCTION The use of opioids has been increasing in operating room and intensive care unit to provide perioperative analgesia as well as stable hemodynamics. However, many authors have suggested that the use of opioids is associated with the expression of acute opioid tolerance (AOT) and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) in experimental studies and(More)
Bacteriophage (phage) evolved as bacterial viruses, but can be adapted to transduce mammalian cells through ligand-directed targeting to a specific receptor. We have recently reported a new generation of hybrid prokaryotic-eukaryotic vectors, which are chimeras of genetic cis-elements of recombinant adeno-associated virus and phage (termed AAVP). This(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) promotes tumor cell adaptation to microenvironmental stress. HIF-1 is up-regulated in irradiated tumors and serves as a promising target for radiosensitization. We initially confirmed that the orally bioavailable HIF-1 inhibitor PX-478 reduces HIF-1 protein levels and signaling in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase-specific radiolabeled tracers could provide the means for noninvasive and repetitive imaging of heterogeneity of EGFR expression and signaling activity in tumors in individual patients before and during therapy with EGFR signaling inhibitors. We developed the synthesis(More)
Tumor hypoxia is a spatially and temporally heterogeneous phenomenon, which results from several tumor and host tissue-specific processes. To study the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-specific transcriptional activity in tumors, we used repetitive noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of(More)