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BACKGROUND At the turn of the 20th century, women commonly died in childbirth due to rachitic pelvis. Although rickets virtually disappeared with the discovery of the hormone vitamin D, recent reports suggest vitamin D deficiency is widespread in industrialized nations. Poor muscular performance is an established symptom of vitamin D deficiency. The current(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to analyze all available breastfeeding data from US Baby-Friendly hospitals in 2001 to determine whether breastfeeding rates at Baby-Friendly designated hospitals differed from average US national, regional, and state rates in the same year and to determine prime barriers to implementation of the Baby-Friendly(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We measure the effect of various input, throughput, and output factors on daily emergency department (ED) mean length of stay per patient (daily mean length of stay). METHODS The study was a retrospective review of 93,274 ED visits between April 15, 2002, and December 31, 2003. The association between the daily mean length of stay and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether low-income infants' adherence to nutritional supplementation with ferrous fumarate sprinkles was better than that with ferrous sulfate drops. STUDY DESIGN The study was a randomized clinical trial of healthy 6-month-old infants. Each infant received either a daily packet of sprinkles or a dropperful of liquid. Follow-up(More)
We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from men enrolled in a randomized trial of male circumcision to prevent HIV. Urethral specimens from men with discharge were cultured for N. gonorrhoeae. MICs were determined by agar dilution. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria defined resistance: penicillin,(More)
BACKGROUND Serosorting, selecting sex partners of the same HIV status, may be associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). We examined the association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a seroconcordant partner and STIs among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) at an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, and(More)
OBJECTIVE We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. DESIGN Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18-24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n=1393) and(More)
Several countries scaling-up adult medical male circumcision (MMC) for HIV prevention intend to introduce early infant male circumcision (EIMC). To assess preference for EIMC in a community with a mature adult MMC program, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of mothers (n = 613) and fathers (n = 430) of baby boys (“index son”)(More)
BACKGROUND We identified predominant vaginal microbiota communities, changes over time, and how this varied by HIV status and other factors in a cohort of 64 women. METHODS Bacterial DNA was extracted from reposited cervicovaginal lavage samples collected annually over an 8-10 year period from Chicago Women's Interagency HIV Study participants: 22(More)
We sought to determine the frequency of use of intravenous (i.v.) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients presenting to our institution with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This observational study involved keeping a log of all patients presenting to our institution with symptoms consistent with AIS who were potential candidates for(More)