Sunyoung Lee

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation during development and in pathological conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that VEGF bioavailability is regulated extracellularly by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through intramolecular processing. Specifically, we show that a subset of MMPs can cleave(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Here we show that in the absence of any pathological insult, autocrine VEGF is required for the homeostasis of blood vessels in the adult. Genetic deletion of vegf specifically in the endothelial lineage leads to progressive endothelial degeneration and(More)
VEGF can be secreted in multiple isoforms with variable affinity for extracellular proteins and different abilities to induce vascular morphogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects remain unclear. Here, we show molecular distinctions between signaling initiated from soluble versus matrix-bound VEGF, which mediates a sustained level of(More)
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in interactive narrative-centered virtual environments for education, training, and entertainment. Narrative environments dynamically craft engaging story-based experiences for users, who are themselves active participants in unfolding stories. A key challenge posed by interactive narrative is recognizing(More)
GPR4 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the vasculature, lung, kidney, and other tissues. In vitro ectopic overexpression studies implicated GPR4 in sensing extracellular pH changes leading to cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. To investigate its biological roles in vivo, we generated GPR4-deficient mice by homologous recombination. Whereas GPR4-null(More)
Growth factor gradients regulate many developmental processes. VEGF-A is distributed in a graded fashion in growing tissues in order to direct sprouting of new vessels. Growth factor gradients can be formed by regulated production, retention, controlled release and degradation. VEGF-A production is controlled by hypoxia while its retention depends on the(More)
OBJECTIVE Unlike other histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma is known to have very poor response to therapy even when discovered in its early stages. Since tumor hypoxia has been shown to be strongly associated with poor prognosis, deregulation of the representative factor of tissue hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible(More)
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a C-type lectin produced by the liver and involved in the innate immune response. We have analyzed six SNPs of MBL2 gene--three at promoter (-550, -435, and -221), one at 5'-untranslational region (UTR) (+4), and two at coding (Gly54Asp and Leu126Leu) regions--in the Korean population (N=129), and have correlated genotypes(More)
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), the endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, have been shown to possess biological functions that are independent of their ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. We have previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 and, in particular, Loop 6 inhibit capillary endothelial cell(More)