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Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During(More)
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection in chickens is known to induce increased mortality, tumors, delayed growth, and suboptimal egg production. Countries importing specified pathogen-free eggs, vaccines, and poultry breeding stock require freedom of infection or contamination with ALV in such products among other avian pathogens. Recently, ALV was found as(More)
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes runting, high mortality, immunosuppression, and chronic neoplasia associated with T and/or B cell lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds, including Attwater's prairie chickens (APC) (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). The complete proviral sequence of a recent REV isolate from APC (REV APC-566) was determined.(More)
Recently, avian leukosis virus (ALV) was isolated from four lots of Marek's disease vaccine produced by two laboratories. The ALVs isolated were characterized by examination of their interactions with cells of two phenotypes (C/E and C/A,E), subgroup-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus neutralization, envelope gene sequencing, and phylogenetic(More)
Three natural recombinant avian leukosis viruses (ALV; PDRC-1039, PDRC-3246, and PDRC-3249) expressing a subgroup A gp85 envelope protein and containing long terminal repeats (LTR) of endogenous ALV-E viruses were isolated from contaminated commercial Marek's disease vaccines, cloned, and completely sequenced. Their full genomes were analyzed and compared(More)
An outbreak of subcutaneous sarcomas in commercial White Leghorn egg layers was observed in the northeastern United States during late 2004. Subcutaneous tumors were confined to three flocks distributed in two locations and belonging to the same company. The tumors were first observed grossly by farm personnel at approximately 7 wk of age and persisted(More)
The pathogenicity and transmission of a field isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was studied using an experimental model in Japanese quail. Oncogenicity was also evaluated after inoculations in chickens and turkeys. The original REV (designated APC-566) was isolated from Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), an endangered(More)
Sepsis induces extensive lymphocyte cell death that may contribute to immune depression and morbidity/mortality in the disorder. bcl-2 is a member of a new class of oncogenes that prevents cell death from an array of noxious stimuli. Transgenic mice that overexpress BCL-2 in T lymphocytes are resistant to sepsis-induced T cell apoptosis, and mortality was(More)
Little is known regarding the effect of intestinal microbiota modifiers, such as probiotics and conventionalization with exogenous bacteria, on host hepatic drug metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of these modifiers on the expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes of the host liver. VSL3 is a probiotic that(More)
Avian leukosis subgroup J (ALV-J) causes a variety of tumors and mortality in meat-type chickens. Since its discovery in the late 1980s, ALV-J has spread to breeding stock produced by most primary breeding companies of North America, the European Union, and Asia. ALV-J seems to have been eradicated from elite breeding stock produced by most primary(More)