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The integrated production, inventory and distribution routing problem (PDRP) is concerned with coordinating the production, inventory and delivery operations to meet customer demand with an objective to minimize the cost. The particular PDRP that we consider in this study also involves heterogeneous transporters with non-instantaneous traveling times and(More)
PURPOSE To describe a step-by-step methodology to establish a reproducible staining protocol for the evaluation of human corneal endothelial cells. METHODS Four procedures were performed to determine the best protocol. (1) To determine the optimal trypan blue staining method, goat corneas were stained with 4 dilutions of trypan blue (0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and(More)
—In this paper, we propose a new graph sampling method for online social networks that achieves the following. First, a sample graph should reflect the ratio between the number of nodes and the number of edges of the original graph. Second, a sample graph should reflect the topology of the original graph. Third, sample graphs should be consistent with each(More)
For a dynamic, evolving multiagent auction, we have developed an adaptive agent bidding strategy (called the p-strategy) based on stochastic modeling. The p-strategy takes into account the dynamics and resulting uncertainties of the auction process using stochastic modeling, and avoids the shortcomings of stochastic modeling by adaptively deciding when to(More)
The University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL) is designed as an open system that allows third parties to build and integrate their own profit-seeking agents into the marketplace of information goods and services. The profit-seeking behavior of agents, however, risks inefficient allocation of goods and services, as agents take strategic stances that(More)
In a blog network, there are special users who induce other users to actively utilize blog services. In this paper, these users whose contents exhibit large influence over other users are defined as <i>Content Power Users</i> (CPUs). Accurately determining who content power users are in a blog network is important in order to establish an effective business(More)
Forming a contract among self-interested agents often requires complex, strategic thinking. For instance, a self-interested agent (contractee) will perform a task for another agent (contractor) only when doing it is in its own interest. Therefore, to form a successful contract, the contractor needs to provide incentives to the contractee, such as proposing(More)
Combinatorial auctions are desirable as they enable bidders to express the synergistic values of a group of assets and thus may lead to better allocations. Compared to other types of auctions, they keep bidders from being exposed to risks (of receiving only parts of combinations that would be valuable to them) or from being overly cautious (in order to(More)