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In a preliminary study, we found that lancemaside A, which is a main constituent of Codonopsis lanceolata used as an herbal medicine for inflammatory diseases, potently inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, TLR-4-linked NF-κB activation of NF-κB luciferase reporter gene-transfected 293-hTLR4-hemagglutinin (HA) cells. Therefore, we investigated its(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 infected macrophages and microglia are long-lived viral reservoirs persistently producing viral progenies. HIV-1 infection extends the life span of macrophages by promoting the stress-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Importantly, various cancers also display the PI3K/Akt activation for long-term cell survival and(More)
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