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Pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1, contributes to the reduced contractile responses of gut smooth muscle observed in both animal colitis models and human inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of IL-1 on the signaling targets mediating acetylcholine(ACh)-induced initial and sustained contraction were examined(More)
We examined expression of protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and characterized their signaling pathways in rabbit gastric muscle cells. The PAR2 activating peptide SLIGRL (PAR2-AP) stimulated Gq, G13, Gi1, PI hydrolysis, and Rho kinase activity, and inhibited cAMP formation. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis was partly inhibited in cells expressing PAR2(More)
Activation of plasma membrane TGR5 receptors in enteroendocrine cells by bile acids is known to regulate gastrointestinal secretion and motility and glucose homeostasis. The endocrine functions of the gut are modulated by microenvironment of the distal gut predominantly by sulfur-reducing bacteria of the microbiota that produce H2S. However, the mechanisms(More)
Sustained smooth-muscle contraction or its experimental counterpart, Ca2+ sensitization, by G(q/13)-coupled receptor agonists is mediated via RhoA-dependent inhibition of MLC (myosin light chain) phosphatase and MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation by a Ca2+-independent MLCK (MLC kinase). The present study identified the(More)
Cannabinoids have long been known to be potent inhibitors of intestinal and colonic propulsion. This effect has generally been attributed to their ability to prejunctionally inhibit release of acetylcholine from excitatory motor neurons that mediate, in part, the ascending contraction phase of the peristaltic reflex. In the present study we examined the(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of proteins best known for its role in neuronal survival, differentiation, migration, and synaptic plasticity in central and peripheral neurons. BDNF is also widely expressed in nonneuronal tissues including the gastrointestinal tract. The role of BDNF in intestinal smooth muscle(More)
The signaling cascades initiated by motilin receptors in gastric and intestinal smooth muscle cells were characterized. Motilin bound with high affinity (IC(50) 0.7 +/- 0.2 nM) to receptors on smooth muscle cells; the receptors were rapidly internalized via G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Motilin selectively activated G(q) and G(13), stimulated(More)
Regulation of the putative amiloride and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) was studied by monitoring chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing Bz (5 x 10(-6) M; a specific ENaC blocker) and resiniferatoxin (RTX; 0-10 x 10(-6) M; a specific TRPV1 agonist)(More)
Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10%(More)
Initial Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of intestinal smooth muscle is inhibited upon IL-1beta treatment. The decrease in contraction reflects the upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling-4 (RGS4) via the canonical inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-2 (IKK2)/IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we show that the activation of various protein kinases,(More)