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All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct(More)
BACKGROUND Women genetically predisposed to breast cancer often develop the disease at a young age when dense breast tissue reduces the sensitivity of X-ray mammography. Our aim was, therefore, to compare contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE MRI) with mammography for screening. METHODS We did a prospective multicentre cohort study in 649 women(More)
All cancers carry somatic mutations in their genomes. A subset, known as driver mutations, confer clonal selective advantage on cancer cells and are causally implicated in oncogenesis, and the remainder are passenger mutations. The driver mutations and mutational processes operative in breast cancer have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here we(More)
We examined the coding sequence of 518 protein kinases, approximately 1.3 Mb of DNA per sample, in 25 breast cancers. In many tumors, we detected no somatic mutations. But a few had numerous somatic mutations with distinctive patterns indicative of either a mutator phenotype or a past exposure.
Familial cylindromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic predisposition to multiple tumours of the skin appendages. The susceptibility gene (CYLD) has previously been localized to chromosome 16q and has the genetic attributes of a tumour-suppressor gene (recessive oncogene). Here we have identified CYLD by detecting germline mutations in 21 cylindromatosis(More)
The multistep model of carcinogenesis in the breast suggests a transition from normal epithelium to invasive carcinoma via non-atypical and atypical hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma. Within the breast, these proliferations are heterogeneous in their cytological and architectural characteristics. This review considers the evidence supporting a precursor(More)
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease encompassing a variety of entities with distinct morphological features and clinical behaviors. Although morphology is often associated with the pattern of molecular aberrations in breast cancers, it is also clear that tumors of the same histological type show remarkably different clinical behavior. This is(More)
Tumor grade is an established indicator of breast cancer outcome, although considerable heterogeneity exists even within-grade. Around 25% of grade III invasive ductal breast carcinomas are associated with a "basal" phenotype, and these tumors are reported to be a distinct subgroup. We have investigated whether this group of breast cancers has a(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the proportion of breast cancers arising in patients with germ line BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations expressing basal markers and developing predictive tests for identification of high-risk patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Histopathologic material from 182 tumors in BRCA1 mutation carriers, 63 BRCA2 carriers, and 109 controls, collected as(More)
Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic(More)