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Protein kinases activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr (MAP kinases) can be grouped into two major classes: ERK and JNK. The ERK group regulates multiple targets in response to growth factors via a Ras-dependent mechanism. In contrast, JNK activates the transcription factor c-Jun in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and exposure of cells to(More)
Treatment of cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines or ultraviolet radiation causes activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK). Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2) was found to be a target of the JNK signal transduction pathway. ATF2 was phosphorylated by JNK on two closely spaced threonine residues within the NH2-terminal activation(More)
The JNK protein kinase is a member of the MAP kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Ten JNK isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes. The protein kinase activity of these(More)
Human peripheral T lymphocytes were studied at 20-24 degrees C using the gigaohm seal recording technique in whole-cell or outside-out patch conformations. The predominant ion channel present under the conditions employed was a voltage-gated K+ channel closely resembling delayed rectifier K+ channels of nerve and muscle. The maximum K+ conductance in ninety(More)
Membrane receptors and ion transport mechanisms probably have an important role in lymphocyte activation leading to T-lymphocyte proliferation in the immune response. Here we have applied a gigaohm-seal patch clamp technique to reveal the identity and properties of ion channels in human T lymphocytes. A voltage-dependent potassium channel bearing a(More)
The calcium channel blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, inhibit phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced mitogenesis at concentrations that block the T lymphocyte K channel currents. K channel blockers also inhibit the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte response in a dose-dependent manner with the same potency sequence as for block of K currents. K channel blockers inhibit(More)
Cross-reactive antibodies produced by a mammalian host during infection by a particular microparasitic strain usually have the effect of reducing the probability of the host being infected by a different, but closely related, pathogen strain. Such cross-reactive immunological responses thereby induce between-strain competition within the pathogen(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common enzymopathy of humans, affects over 400 million people. The geographical correlation of its distribution with the historical endemicity of malaria suggests that this disorder has risen in frequency through natural selection by malaria. However, attempts to confirm that G6PD deficiency is(More)
The primary objective of this study was to determine the response rates of the gemcitabine and cisplatin combination in unresectable gall bladder cancer patients. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the toxicity, time to progressive disease, and overall survival. Chemonaïve patients with histologically proven, unresectable bidimensionally measurable(More)
Green tea has shown remarkable anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive effects in many animal tumor bioassays, cell culture systems, and epidemiological studies. Many of these biological effects of green tea are mediated by epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present therein. We have earlier shown that EGCG treatment results in(More)