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INTRODUCTION There is overwhelming medical and scientific consensus that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and other serious diseases in smokers. In the Total Exposure Study, 29 biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) were measured in a cross-sectional sample of 3,585 adult smokers (AS) and 1,077 nonsmokers (NS). The BOPH included(More)
Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol that includes a gas vapor phase and a particulate phase. Inclusion of activated carbon in the cigarette filter can reduce some of the gas-phase smoke constituents implicated as toxicologically relevant. The present study evaluated exposure to selected gas-phase constituents when adult smokers switched to prototype(More)
Alkylating agents occur in the environment and are formed endogenously. Tobacco smoke contains a variety of alkylating agents or precursors including, among others, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide. We developed and validated a method for the simultaneous determination of(More)
BACKGROUND Current gynaecological practice is to remove surgically accessible ovaries with prior consent in post menopausal women to eradicate the risk of subsequent development of ovarian cancer. However in colorectal surgery opinion is divided, although evidence suggests that ovarian metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma occur in 3-4% of cases. (More)
Optical mapping studies have suggested that intracellular Ca2+ and T-wave alternans are linked through underlying alternations in Ca2+ cycling-inducing oscillations in action potential duration through Ca2+-sensitive conductances. However, these studies cannot measure single-cell behavior; therefore, the Ca2+ cycling heterogeneities within microscopic(More)
BACKGROUND A number of defects in excitation-contraction coupling have been identified in failing mammalian hearts. The goal of this study was to measure the defects in intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in left ventricular epicardial myocytes of the whole heart in an animal model of congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS Intracellular Ca(2+)(More)
Cardioembolic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the prominent source of clot formation. While systemic anticoagulation is the current standard of care, anticoagulants carry many contraindications and possible complications. Techniques for elimination of the LAA(More)
This report describes a new method for estimating the retention of selected mainstream smoke constituents in the respiratory tract of adult smokers during cigarette smoking. Both particulate-phase (PP) constituents including nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), two tobacco-specific nitrosamines(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with heart failure are at increased risk for thromboembolic events, including stroke. Historically attributed to blood stasis, little is known about the adverse effects of elevated chamber filling pressure on endocardial function, which could predispose to intracardiac thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated changes in(More)
Urinary excretion of nicotine and its five major metabolites (nicotine-N-glucuronide, cotinine, cotinine-N-glucuronide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-O-glucuronide), expressed as nicotine equivalents (NE), has been used as a biomarker of smoking-related nicotine exposure. In this open-label, single center study, we investigated the(More)