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INTRODUCTION The use of intrathecal (IT) infusion of analgesic medications to treat patients with chronic refractory pain has increased since its inception in the 1980s, and the need for clinical research in IT therapy is ongoing. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC) panel of experts convened in 2000, 2003, and 2007 to make recommendations on the(More)
OBJECTIVE This multinational, Internet-based survey was designed to assess the prevalence, frequency, severity, and impact of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) in patients receiving opioid therapy for chronic pain and taking laxatives. DESIGN In total, 322 patients taking daily oral opioids and laxatives completed the 45-item questionnaire. At the(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal drug infusion therapy is usually considered when spinal-acting analgesics or antispasmodics administered via the oral or transdermal routes fail to control patients' pain or are associated with unacceptable side effects. The intrathecal administration of centrally acting agents bypasses the blood-brain-barrier resulting in much higher(More)
Background.  Expert panel of physicians and nonphysicians, all expert in intrathecal (IT) therapies, convened in the years 2000 and 2003 to make recommendations for the rational use of IT analgesics based on the preclinical and clinical literature known up to those times, presentations of the expert panel, discussions on current practice and standards, and(More)
INTRODUCTION Trialing for intrathecal pump placement is an essential part of the decision-making process in placing a permanent device. In both the United States and the international community, the proper method for trialing is ill defined. METHODS The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC) is a group of well-published experienced practitioners who(More)
INTRODUCTION Targeted intrathecal drug infusion to treat moderate to severe chronic pain has become a standard part of treatment algorithms when more conservative options fail. This therapy is well established in the literature, has shown efficacy, and is an important tool for the treatment of both cancer and noncancer pain; however, it has become clear in(More)
Opioids are widely used for the treatment of patients with chronic pain; yet, the increase in their abuse, misuse, and diversion is an ongoing focus of regulatory, governmental, and legal scrutiny. As a consequence, clinicians are faced with numerous challenges in an effort to use opioids in appropriate patients with pain while minimizing the potential for(More)
Background.  Expert panels of physicians and nonphysicians, all expert in intrathecal (IT) therapies, convened in the years 2000 and 2003 to make recommendations for the rational use of IT analgesics, based on the preclinical and clinical literature known up to those times, presentations of the expert panels, discussions on current practice and standards,(More)
INTRODUCTION Continuous intrathecal infusion of drugs to treat chronic pain and spasticity has become a standard part of the algorithm of care. The use of opioids has been associated with noninfectious inflammatory masses at the tip of the intrathecal catheter, which can result in neurologic complications. METHODS The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference is(More)