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Fibrin is a biopolymer that has been used in a variety of biomaterial, cell delivery and tissue engineering applications. The enzyme thrombin catalyzes the formation of fibrin microfibrils, which form a three-dimensional mesh in which cells can be directly embedded at the time of gel formation. In this study, fibrin hydrogels containing vascular smooth(More)
U.S. sewage sludges were analyzed for 58 regulated and nonregulated elements by ICP-MS and electron microscopy to explore opportunities for removal and recovery. Sludge/water distribution coefficients (KD, L/kg dry weight) spanned 5 orders of magnitude, indicating significant metal accumulation in biosolids. Rare-earth elements and minor metals (Y, La, Ce,(More)
The quantification and characterization of natural, engineered, and incidental nano- to micro-size particles are beneficial to assessing a nanomaterial's performance in manufacturing, their fate and transport in the environment, and their potential risk to human health. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) can sensitively(More)
Field flow fractionation (FFF) technique is used to determine the size of water-soluble Au, ZnS, ZnS-Mn2+ nanoparticles, and CdSe, CdSe-DNA quantum dots (QDs). The results of the FFF measurements are compared with the particle size analysis using conventional techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and(More)
The mixed finite element scheme of the Stokes problem with pressure stabilization is analyzed for the cross-grid Pk−Pk−1 elements, k≥ 1, using discontinuous pressures. The P+ k −Pk−1 elements are also analyzed. We prove the stability of the scheme using the macroelement technique. The order of convergence follows from the standard theory of mixed methods.(More)
We consider a multigrid algorithm for the cell centered di€erence scheme on triangular meshes using a new prolongation operator. The energy norm of this prolongation is shown to be less than  2 p . Thus the W-cycle is guaranteed to converge. Numerical experiments show that our operator is better than the trivial injection. Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.(More)