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The Signal Peptide Peptidases (SPP) are members of the Intramembrane Cleaving Proteases, which are involved in an array of protein-processing and intracellular signaling events in animals. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has six genes encoding SPP-like proteins, the physiological functions of which are unknown. As a first step in defining the roles of(More)
The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of(More)
As glutamate and ammonia play a pivotal role in nitrogen homeostasis, their production is mediated by various enzymes that are widespread in living organisms. Here, we report on an effective electrophoretic method to monitor these enzymes. The in gel activity visualization is based on the interaction of the products, glutamate and ammonia, with glutamate(More)
Pseudomonas fluorescens invoked a metabolic reconfiguration that resulted in enhanced production of pyruvate under the challenge of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Although this stress led to a sharp reduction in the activities of numerous tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, there was a marked increase in the activities of catalase and various(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent kinases are central to numerous metabolic processes and mediate the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). While pyruvate kinase (PK, EC: 2.7.1.40), the final enzyme of the glycolytic pathway is critical in the anaerobic synthesis of ATP from ADP, pyruvate phosphate dikinase(More)
Gel electrophoresis is routinely used to separate and analyse macromolecules in biological systems. Although many of these electrophoretic techniques necessitate the denaturing of the analytes prior to their analysis, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) permits the investigation of proteins/enzymes and their supramolecular structures(More)
As our reliance on aluminum (Al) increases, so too does its presence in the environment and living systems. Although generally recognized as safe, its interactions with most living systems have been nefarious. This review presents an overview of the noxious effects of Al and how a subset of microbes can rework their metabolic pathways in order to survive an(More)
Metal pollutants are a global health risk due to their ability to contribute to a variety of diseases. Aluminum (Al), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant is implicated in anemia, osteomalacia, hepatic disorder, and neurological disorder. In this review, we outline how this intracellular generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers a metabolic(More)
The objective of this investigation was to establish a three-dimensionally cultured human endometrium which could be used as a tissue model for the mechanism study of implantation in vitro. By using human endometrial stromal (ES) and epithelial cells (EE) from hysterectomy specimens, reconstruction of endometrium in culture was established by first layering(More)
The key technique for wireless TVs is to deliver multimedia streams stably over an unstable wireless link. In wireless LANs, a link level retransmission mechanism is used to deal with packet losses due to unstable wireless links. While the retransmission mechanism is effective to hide link level losses to users, it may causes additional delay to other(More)