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This second article of the 2-part review builds on the theoretic background provided by the first article to cover the major technical factors that affect image quality in diffusion imaging, including the acquisition sequence, magnet field strength, gradient amplitude, and slew rate as well as multichannel radio-frequency coils and parallel imaging. The(More)
In this article, the underlying theory of clinical diffusion MR imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography, is reviewed. First, a brief explanation of the basic physics of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping is provided. This is followed by an overview of the additional information(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Children with congenital hemiparesis have greater asymmetry in diffusion parameters of the pyramidal tracts compared with control subjects. We hypothesized that the asymmetry correlates with the severity of hemiparesis and that diffusion metrics would be abnormal in the affected tracts and normal in the unaffected tracts. MATERIALS(More)
A method of performing diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the fetal brain in utero is proposed. The major difficulty of performing diffusion imaging in utero is the presence of motion. By modifying conventional single-shot spin-echo echo-planar DWI with a short repetition time sequence, a sequence that performs DWI and(More)
Although interferon (IFN) ␤ has many adverse effects, including flulike illness, increased spasticity, and laboratory abnormalities, 1 autoimmune events are usually limited to autoantibodies with the thyroid the most common target organ involved. 2 Liver abnormalities during IFN ␤ therapy are usually clinically asymptomatic and transient biochemical events.(More)
BACKGROUND The current standard of care for pancreatic cancer is weekly gemcitabine administered for 3 of 4 weeks with a 1-week break between treatment cycles. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD)-driven regimens as such are often associated with toxicities. Recent studies demonstrated that frequent dosing of chemotherapeutic drugs at relatively lower doses in(More)
Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four groups were(More)