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The average mass composition of cosmic rays with primary energies between 10 17 and 10 18 eV has been studied using a hybrid detector consisting of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) prototype and the MIA muon array. Measurements have been made of the change in the depth of shower maximum and the muon density as a function of energy. The results show… (More)
Introduction: The SELENE mission is the first to employ a germanium (Ge) detector to observe lunar gamma rays [1,2]. With a superior energy resolution, the SELENE Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has uniquely identified many elements that constitute the lunar surface such as and Fe in the upper layer of ~60 g/cm 2 with high precision [3-5]. With the SELENE GRS,… (More)
Palladium nanoparticles were deposited with high dispersion and stability on nitrogen-doped magnetic carbon nanoparticles by a simple impregnation method, and their catalytic performance was investigated for Heck, Suzuki, and Sonogashira coupling reactions.