Most of the national critical key infrastructure, such as power, piped gas and water supply facilities, or the high-speed railroad, is run on the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. Recently, concerns have been raised about the possibility of these facilities being attacked by cyber terrorists, hacking, or viruses. Thus, it is time to… (More)
BACKGROUND The level of urine cotinine is an indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate urine cotinine for the purpose of assessing the smoking status of Korean smokers and non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. METHODS The subjects were identified from the 2007-2009 and the 2010 data sets of the Korea National Health… (More)
Wireless machine-to-machine sensor networks with multiple radio interfaces are expected to have several advantages, including high spatial scalability, low event detection latency, and low energy consumption. Here, we propose a network model design method involving network approximation and an optimized multi-tiered clustering algorithm that maximizes node… (More)
Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With… (More)
We have carried out research on high-speed crowd simulation effects through marker-based multi-object augmentation as the basis for a crowd scene processing system that can produce natural movement of a crowd with less resources and operation. When applied to 3D AR images, this method is expected to achieve high efficiency with less mobile resources.
Despite growing awareness of security issues especially in SCADA networks, there exist little or scarce information about SCADA vulnerabilities and attacks. Where security has been a consideration, there has been no clear methodology to assess the security impacts brought about by attacks. Worst, there have been no or very little security tools that have… (More)