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As flash memory technologies quickly improve, NAND flash memory-based storage devices are becoming a viable alternative as a secondary storage solution for general-purpose computing systems such as personal computers and enterprise server systems. Most existing flash translation layer (FTL) schemes are, however, ill-suited for such systems because they were(More)
For robust spoken conversational interaction, many dialog state tracking algorithms have been developed. Few studies, however, have reported the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Dialog State Tracking Challenge (DSTC) is designed to address this issue by comparing various methods on the same domain. In this paper, we present a set of techniques(More)
The cost-per-bit of NAND flash memory has been continuously improved by semiconductor process scaling and multi-leveling technologies (e.g., a 10 nm-node TLC device). However, the decreasing lifetime of NAND flash memory as a side effect of recent advanced technologies is regarded as a main barrier for a wide adoption of NAND flash-based storage systems. In(More)
NAND flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) are increasingly popular in enterprise server systems because of their advantages over hard disk drives such as higher performance and lower power consumption. However , the limited and unpredictable lifetime of SSDs remains to be a serious obstacle to wider adoption of SSDs in enterprise systems. In this paper, we(More)
This paper proposes an unsupervised approach to user simulation in order to automatically furnish updates and assessments of a deployed spoken dialog system. The proposed method adopts a dynamic Bayesian network to infer the unobservable true user action from which the parameters of other components are naturally derived. To verify the quality of the(More)
Incremental Dialog Processing (IDP) enables Spoken Dialog Systems to gradually process minimal units of user speech in order to give the user an early system response. In this paper, we present an application of IDP that shows its effectiveness in a task-oriented dialog system. We have implemented an IDP strategy and deployed it for one month on a real-user(More)
We propose a new approach, called dynamic program and erase scaling (DPES), for improving the endurance of NAND flash memory. The DPES approach is based on our key finding that the NAND endurance is dependent on the erase voltage as well as the number of P/E cycles. Since the NAND endurance has a near-linear dependence on the erase voltage, lowering the(More)
— Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at(More)
We propose a new system-level solution that improves both the performance and lifetime of NAND storage systems by exploiting the performance asymmetry of NAND devices. At the device level, we propose a new program sequence, called relaxed program sequence (RPS), which allows more flexible page allocations in a block without compromising NAND reliability. By(More)