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As flash memory technologies quickly improve, NAND flash memory-based storage devices are becoming a viable alternative as a secondary storage solution for general-purpose computing systems such as personal computers and enterprise server systems. Most existing flash translation layer (FTL) schemes are, however, ill-suited for such systems because they were(More)
For robust spoken conversational interaction, many dialog state tracking algorithms have been developed. Few studies, however, have reported the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Dialog State Tracking Challenge (DSTC) is designed to address this issue by comparing various methods on the same domain. In this paper, we present a set of techniques(More)
Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that regulate synapse formation is required for the understanding of neural wiring, higher brain functions, and mental disorders. Despite the wealth of in vitro information, fundamental questions about how glutamatergic synapses are formed in the mammalian brain remain unanswered. Glutamate receptor (GluR) delta2 is(More)
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics. Despite decades of research, the aetiology of TS has remained elusive. Recent successes in gene discovery backed by rapidly advancing genomic technologies have given us new insights into the genetic basis of the disorder, but the growing collection(More)
The MAM domain-containing GPI anchor proteins MDGA1 and MDGA2 are Ig superfamily adhesion molecules composed of six IG domains, a fibronectin III domain, a MAM domain, and a GPI anchor. MDGAs contribute to the radial migration and positioning of a subset of cortical neurons during early neural development. However, MDGAs continue to be expressed in(More)
ATP has been recognized as an important extracellular signaling molecule and P2X receptors are membrane ion channels activated by the binding of extracellular ATP. Since both AQP4 and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) are known to be present in astrocytes, we examined whether P2X7R activation plays a role in the regulation of AQP4 expression in astrocytes.(More)
This paper proposes an unsupervised approach to user simulation in order to automatically furnish updates and assessments of a deployed spoken dialog system. The proposed method adopts a dynamic Bayesian network to infer the unobservable true user action from which the parameters of other components are naturally derived. To verify the quality of the(More)
Incremental Dialog Processing (IDP) enables Spoken Dialog Systems to gradually process minimal units of user speech in order to give the user an early system response. In this paper, we present an application of IDP that shows its effectiveness in a task-oriented dialog system. We have implemented an IDP strategy and deployed it for one month on a real-user(More)