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The use of near-infrared or infrared photons is a promising approach for biomedical imaging in living tissue. This technology often requires exogenous contrast agents with combinations of hydrodynamic diameter, absorption, quantum yield and stability that are not possible with conventional organic fluorophores. Here we show that the fluorescence emission of(More)
Although archaea, Gram-negative bacteria, and mammalian cells constitutively secrete membrane vesicles (MVs) as a mechanism for cell-free intercellular communication, this cellular process has been overlooked in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we found for the first time that Gram-positive bacteria naturally produce MVs into the extracellular milieu. Further(More)
Type-II band engineered quantum dots (CdTe/CdSe(core/shell) and CdSe/ZnTe(core/shell) heterostructures) are described. The optical properties of these type-II quantum dots are studied in parallel with their type-I counterparts. We demonstrate that the spatial distribution of carriers can be controlled within the type-II quantum dots, which makes their(More)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively studied for photothermal cancer therapy because AuNPs can generate heat upon near-infrared irradiation. However, improving their tumor-targeting efficiency and optimizing the nanoparticle size for maximizing the photothermal effect remain challenging. We demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of lymph node metastases is an important prognostic marker with regard to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Assessment of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for the presence of tumor may improve staging. Our objective was to develop an optical noninvasive imaging tool that would permit intraoperative SLN mapping and provide real-time(More)
Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon(More)
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is an important cancer surgery during which the first lymph node draining the site of a tumor is identified, resected, and analyzed for the presence or absence of malignant cells. Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) of the appropriate size, charge, and emission wavelength permit this surgery to be(More)
We report a new family of oligomeric alkyl phosphine ligands for nanocrystal quantum dots. These oligomeric phosphines show effective binding affinity to quantum dot surfaces. They form thin and secure organic shells that stabilize quantum dots in diverse environments including serum and polymer matrices. They maintain the initial as-grown photoluminescence(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Although the sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept has traditionally been applied to solid organs, we hypothesized that the pleural space might drain into a specific SLN group. The identification of such a nodal group could assist in the staging and treatment of pleural-based diseases, such as mesothelioma, or other lung cancers with visceral(More)