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Characterizing the genetic programs that specify development and evolution of the cerebral cortex is a central challenge in neuroscience. Stem cells in the transient embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones generate neurons that migrate across the intermediate zone to the overlying cortical plate, where they differentiate and form the neocortex. It is(More)
The regulatory elements that direct tissue-specific gene expression in the developing mammalian embryo remain largely unknown. Although chromatin profiling has proven to be a powerful method for mapping regulatory sequences in cultured cells, chromatin states characteristic of active developmental enhancers have not been directly identified in embryonic(More)
MOTIVATION Microarray experiments frequently produce multiple missing values (MVs) due to flaws such as dust, scratches, insufficient resolution or hybridization errors on the chips. Unfortunately, many downstream algorithms require a complete data matrix. The motivation of this work is to determine the impact of MV imputation on downstream analysis, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a mostly uncharacterized pathology. Recent gene array attempts to identify the molecular underpinnings of the illness in human postmortem subjects have not yielded a consensus. The authors hypothesized that controlling several sources of clinical and technical variability and supporting(More)
Mechanisms determining characteristic age-of-onset for neurological diseases are largely unknown. Normal brain aging associates with robust and progressive transcriptome changes ("molecular aging"), but the intersection with disease pathways is mostly uncharacterized. Here, using cross-cohort microarray analysis of four human brain areas, we show that(More)
Mechanisms involved with degeneration of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease) are poorly understood, but genetically inherited forms, comprising ~10% of the cases, are potentially informative. Recent observations that several inherited forms of ALS involve the RNA binding proteins TDP43 and FUS raise the question as to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important mediators of innate and adaptive immune responses, but the gene networks governing their lineage differentiation and maturation are poorly understood. To gain insight into the mechanisms that promote human DC differentiation and contribute to the acquisition of their functional phenotypes, we performed genome-wide(More)
Studies of age-related molecular profiles have separately focused on the human and rodent brains, but the extent to which each organism predicts molecular events across species for the global signature of aging and for specific biological functions has only begun to be characterized. We previously showed that the molecular correlates of aging in the mouse(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori(More)
BACKGROUND Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential, both as a biological tool to uncover the pathophysiology of disease by creating relevant human cell models and as a source of cells for cell-based therapeutic applications. Studying the reprogramming process will also provide significant insight into tissue development. OBJECTIVE(More)