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The pioneering work of Adleman (1994) demonstrated that DNA molecules in test tubes can be manipulated to perform a certain type of mathematical computation. This has stimulated a theoretical interest in the possibility of constructing DNA-based molecular computers. To gauge the practicality of realizing such microscopic computers, it was thought necessary(More)
The concept of cell language has been defined in molecular terms. The molecule-based cell language is shown to be isomorphic with the sound- and visual signal-based human language with respect to ten out of the 13 design features of human language characterized by Hockett. Biocybernetics, a general molecular theory of living systems developed over the past(More)
To define the molecular processes underlying toxicological manifestations experimentally measured on the cellular level, it is essential to have available a molecular model of the living cell itself. The Bhopalator is a molecular model of the living cell formulated by integrating the three major branches of biology within a coherent theoretical framework —(More)
One of the critical components of the mechanisms of cell communication and cell computing has been postulated to be spaceand time-organized teleonomic (or goaldirected) shape changes of biopolymers that are driven by exergonic chemical reactions catalyzed by biopolymer shape changes themselves. The generalized Franck-Condon principle resolves the apparent(More)
We can recognize three distinct categories of computers -numerical, lexical, or molecular. They are distinguished by the nature of signs being manipulated to accomplish computing, defined as a series of transitions obeying a set of axioms, rules, or laws. The first category of computers is too well known to be commented on. The concept of "computing with(More)