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U1 snRNP (U1), in addition to its splicing role, protects pre-mRNAs from drastic premature termination by cleavage and polyadenylation (PCPA) at cryptic polyadenylation signals (PASs) in introns. Here, a high-throughput sequencing strategy of differentially expressed transcripts (HIDE-seq) mapped PCPA sites genome wide in divergent organisms. Surprisingly,(More)
Previously, we explored the epidemic pattern and molecular characterization of noroviruses (NoVs) isolated in Chungnam, Korea in 2008, and the present study extended these observations to 2009 and 2010. In Korea, NoVs showed the seasonal prevalence from late fall to spring, and widely detected in preschool children and peoples over 60 years of age.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, which causes death of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Genetic cause of SMA is the deletion or mutation of SMN1 gene, which encodes the SMN protein. Although SMA patients include SMN2 gene, a duplicate of SMN1 gene, predominant production of exon 7 skipped isoform(More)
BACKGROUND Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)](More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative agent of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and can be involved in very long chronic infections up to 30 years or more. Therefore, it has been speculated that HCV possesses mechanisms capable of modulating host defense systems such as innate and adaptive immunity. To investigate(More)
The translation of polioviral mRNA occurs through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Several RNA-binding proteins, such as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and poly(rC)-binding protein (PCBP), are required for the poliovirus IRES-dependent translation. Here we report that a poliovirus protein, 3C(pro) (and/or 3CD(pro)), cleaves PTB isoforms(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous survival of motor neurons 1 (SMN1) gene deletions, leaving a duplicate gene, SMN2, as the sole source of SMN protein. However, most of the mRNA produced from SMN2 pre-mRNA is exon 7-skipped ( approximately 80%), resulting in a highly unstable and almost undetectable protein (SMNDelta7). We show that this(More)
The SMN complex is essential for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), the major constituents of the spliceosome. Deficiency in functional SMN protein causes spinal muscular atrophy, a common motor neuron degenerative disease of severity commensurate with SMN levels and, correspondingly, snRNP assembly decreases. We developed a(More)
Translational initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA occurs by internal entry of ribosomes into an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) at the 5' nontranslated region. A region encoding the N-terminal part of the HCV polyprotein has been shown to augment the translation of HCV mRNA. Here we show that a cellular protein, NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1),(More)
The circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin requires the nocturnal increment of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) protein. To date, only limited information is available in the critical issue of how AANAT protein expression is up-regulated exclusively at night regardless of its species-specific mRNA profiles. Here we(More)