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Multilocus genotyping of microbial pathogens has revealed a range of population structures, with some bacteria showing extensive recombination and others showing almost complete clonality. The population structure of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been harder to evaluate, since most studies have used a limited number of antigen-encoding(More)
To better understand trends in the burden of malaria and their temporal relationship to control activities, a survey was conducted to assess reported cases of malaria and malaria control activities in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Data on reported malaria cases were abstracted from available records at all three district hospitals, three rural hospitals and 25(More)
BACKGROUND Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information(More)
Response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine treatment was assessed in vivo in 219 malaria cases from eight villages in a formerly hypoendemic area of Zimbabwe experiencing a malaria outbreak. Seven (3%) of the cases were fully sensitive to chloroquine while 182 (83%) exhibited chloroquine-resistant responses. Of the 182 chloroquine-resistant cases 74(More)
BACKGROUND Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. (More)
BACKGROUND Asymptomatic reservoirs of malaria parasites are common yet are difficult to detect, posing a problem for malaria control. If control programmes focus on mosquito control and treatment of symptomatic individuals only, malaria can quickly resurge if interventions are scaled back. Foci of parasite populations must be identified and treated.(More)
Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic in southern Zambia. However, no data on the entomologic aspects of malaria transmission have been published from Zambia in more than 25 years. We evaluated seasonal malaria transmission by Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. and characterized the blood feeding behavior of An. arabiensis in two(More)
Rapid diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the main limitations to prompt treatment. Diagnosis based on clinical symptoms is decidedly unreliable, especially in areas of seasonal transmission like Zimbabwe. In view of this, the Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein (HRP-II) antigen detection assay (ParaSight-F test) was tried at(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the associations between household Plasmodium falciparum infection and a number of factors including domestic animal ownership, potential mosquito breeding sites, indoor darkness, density of people, distance between dwelling structures, and insecticide-treated bed net use. METHODS Analyses were based on data collected from a(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Further malaria control will require targeted control strategies based on evidence of risk. The objective of this study was to identify environmental risk factors for malaria transmission using remote sensing technologies to guide(More)