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Zaprinast is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is active in various models of pain when administered locally. In addition, the antinociception of zaprinast is involved in the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway. However, the effect of zaprinast administered spinally has not been examined. Therefore, this study examined the effect of zaprinast on the(More)
Spinal metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been known to be involved in the modulation of nociception. While the antinociceptive effects of the mGluR1/5 have been demonstrated, the role of mGluR2/3 for nociception is less clear. This study investigated the effects of an intrathecal mGluR2/3 agonist, APDC, and a mGluR2/3 antagonist, LY341495, for(More)
BACKGROUND Endotracheal intubation usually causes transient hypertension and tachycardia. The cardiovascular and arousal responses to endotracheal and endobronchial intubation were determined during rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia in normotensive and hypertensive elderly patients. METHODS Patients requiring endotracheal intubation with (HT, n = 30)(More)
Adenosine and excitatory amino acids have been known to be involved in modulating nociceptive transmission at the spinal level. The authors assessed the characteristics of the interaction of the adenosine-excitatory amino acid antagonist combinations in the spinal cord of rats on the formalin-induced nociception. Intrathecal NMDA antagonist ((5R,(More)
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