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Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and in diabetic vascular complications. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists, improve insulin sensitivity and are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.(More)
BACKGROUND Sulfonylurea primarily stimulates insulin secretion by binding to its receptor on the pancreatic β-cells. Recent studies have suggested that sulfonylureas induce insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), one of the nuclear receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulfonylurea on PPARγ(More)
The major obstacle in cell therapy of diabetes mellitus is the limited source of insulin-producing beta cells. Very recently, it was shown that a five-stage protocol recapitulating in vivo pancreatic organogenesis induced pancreatic beta cells in vitro; however, this protocol is specific to certain cell lines and shows much line-to-line variation in(More)
There is strong evidence to show that diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress. However, the source of this oxidative stress remains unclear. Using transgenic mice that overexpress aldose reductase (AR) in their lenses, we found that the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway is the major cause of hyperglycemic oxidative stress in this(More)
OBJECTIVE Resistin belongs to a family of cysteine-rich secreted polypeptides that are mainly produced by monocytes/macrophages in humans. Recently, high concentrations of resistin were shown to induce vascular endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. We examined if resistin was secreted from macrophages locally in atheromas(More)
Under pathological conditions such as ischemia (I), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and Alzheimer's disease, astrocytes show a large increase in endothelin (ET) -like immunoreactivity. However, it is not clear whether ET is protective or destructive to these cells during brain injury. Using astrocytes from ET-1-deficient mice, we determined the effect of ET-1 on(More)
Under pathological conditions in the adult CNS, such as ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage and Alzheimer's disease, endothelin (ET)-1- and -3-like immunoreactivities are elevated in astrocytes of the injured adult brain. However, it is not clear whether this is due to increased synthesis or increased binding of ET-1. Further, it is not known whether ET-1(More)
STUDY DESIGN Radiological analysis and classification of normal patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine. OBJECTIVE To classify the patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine in young asymptomatic adults and analyze the differences in the various spinal and pelvic parameters according to these patterns. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previous studies(More)