Sung-Ho Chen

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Astrocytes play a critical neurotrophic and neuroprotective role in the brain, and improper function of these cells may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Because astrocytes are known to be enriched with Cu chaperone proteins, it is important to understand the factors that may lead to cytotoxic effects of Cu on astrocytes. In this(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers innate immunity mainly via TLR4 signaling. ATF3 is a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling. HMGB1 plays a critical role in the final step of sepsis. However, the mechanisms of ATF3 and the role of HMGB1 in regulating innate immunity-induced sepsis are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that serum HMGB1 levels(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection and Lipotoxin (liposomes with 200 U of BoNT-A) instillation target different proteins, including P2X3, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, and SNAP-25, in the bladder mucosa, leading to different treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective study performed in a(More)
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