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Contest success functions, which show how probabilities of winning depend on resources devoted to a con ‡ict, have been widely used in the literature addressing appropriative activities (economics), international and civil wars (political science), and group con ‡ict and selection (evolutionary biology). Two well-known forms of contest success functions(More)
Spatial evolutionary games model individuals playing a game with their neighbors in a spatial domain and describe the time evolution of strategy profile of individuals over space. We derive integro-differential equations as determin-istic approximations of strategy revision stochastic processes. These equations generalize the existing ordinary differential(More)
We introduce several methods of decomposition for two player normal form games. Viewing the set of all games as a vector space, we exhibit explicit orthonormal bases for the subspaces of potential games, zero-sum games, and their orthogonal complements which we call anti-potential games and anti-zero-sum games, respectively. Perhaps surprisingly, every(More)
Social preferences such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic motivation and a desire to uphold ethical norms are essential to good government, often facilitating socially desirable allocations that would be unattainable by incentives that appeal solely to self-interest. But experimental and other evidence indicates that conventional economic incentives and(More)
This paper shows how larger group size can enhance punishing behavior in social dilemmas and hence support higher levels of cooperation. We focus on describing con ‡ict technology using Lanchester's equations and study the role of " collectivity " of punishment to support cooperation in large groups. The main results suggest that as long as defectors are,(More)
Some philosophers and social scientists have stressed the importance for good government of an altruistic citizenry that values the well being of one another. Others have emphasized the need for incentives that induce even the self interested to contribute to the public good. Implicitly most have assumed that these two approaches are complementary or at(More)
SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scienti5ic work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peer-­‐reviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers must be based on work(More)
Policies and explicit incentives designed for self-regarding individuals sometimes are less effective or even counterproductive when they diminish altruism, ethical norms and other social preferences. Evidence from 51 experimental studies indicates that this crowding out effect is pervasive, and that crowding in also occurs. A model in which self-regarding(More)