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Gp91(phox)/NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is the main catalytic component of NOX, which mediates the phagocytic killing of ingested pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is relatively resistant to the microbicidal effects of ROS. Thus, the exact roles of NOX2 in the innate immune control against Mtb(More)
Caspase-3 is an important executor caspase that plays an essential role in apoptosis. Recently, HS1-associated protein X1 (HAX-1) was found to be a substrate of caspase-3. Although HAX-1 has serve multifunctional roles in cellular functions such as cell survival and calcium homeostasis, the detailed functional mechanism of HAX-1 remains still unclear. In(More)
Caspase-3 (CASP3) plays a key role in apoptosis. In this study, HAX-1 was identified as a new substrate of CASP3 during apoptosis. HAX-1 was cleaved by CASP3 during etoposide-(ETO) induced apoptosis, and this event was inhibited by a CASP3-specific inhibitor. The cleavage site of HAX-1, at Asp(127), was located using N-terminal amino acid sequencing of in(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of the MAP kinase kinase kinase, is activated by several death stimuli and is tightly regulated by several mechanisms such as interactions with regulatory proteins and post-translational modifications. Here, we report that dual-specificity phosphatase 13A (DUSP13A) functions as a novel regulator of ASK1.(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family member that plays a central role in cytokine- and stress-induced apoptosis by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 signaling cascades. ASK1-induced apoptotic activity is up-regulated by two cellular factors, Daxx and TRAF2, through direct(More)
The activation of caspases is a critical event for the execution phase of programmed cell death. Caspases are highly specific in their ability to activate or inhibit many crucial proteins in the cell via site-specific cleavage. To date, more than 60 proteins have been shown to be substrates of one or more caspases in mammalian cells, and the list is still(More)
Recently, it was found that microglia regulated synaptic remodeling of the developing brain, but their mechanisms have not been well understood. In this study, the action of microglia on neuronal synapse formation was investigated, and the primary target of microglial processes was discovered. When the developing microglia were applied to cultured(More)
Here we describe a proteomic approach to detect fibrinolytic enzymes from the culture supernatant of Bacillus subtilis 168. Following isoelectric focusing without dithiothreitol, two gels, one for sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the other for zymography, were run in parallel. After silver staining of SDS-PAGE and(More)
Purine catabolic pathway in Bacillus subtilis is consisted of more than 14 genes. Among these genes, pucL and pucM are required for uricase activity. While PucL is known to encode the uricase itself, the function of PucM is still unclear although this protein is also indispensable for uric acid decomposition. Here, we provide evidence that PucM, a(More)
Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) is one of the most important anti-oxidant enzymes in yeast. Gpx3 is a ubiquitously expressed isoform that modulates the activities of redox-sensitive thiol proteins, particularly those involved in signal transduction pathways and protein translocation. In order to search for the interaction partners of Gpx3, we carried out(More)