Sunder Raj D Mudaliar

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BACKGROUND Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Obeticholic acid (OCA; INT-747, 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid) is a semisynthetic derivative of the primary human bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid, the natural agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, which is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. In animal models, OCA decreases insulin resistance and hepatic(More)
BACKGROUND Despite increasing public health concerns regarding obesity, few safe and effective drug treatments are available. Combination treatment with sustained-release naltrexone and bupropion was developed to produce complementary actions in CNS pathways regulating bodyweight. The Contrave Obesity Research I (COR-I) study assessed the effect of such(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in extracellular matrix changes and endothelial cell proliferation, both of which are precursors to new capillary growth. Angiogenesis is a vital adaptation to exercise training, and the exercise-induced reduction in intracellular PO2 has been proposed as a stimulus for this process. Thus we studied(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in obesity (OB) gene expression and production of leptin in response to insulin in vitro and in vivo under euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions in humans. Three protocols were used: 1) euglycemic clamp with insulin infusion rates at 40, 120, 300, and 1,200 mU / m / min carried out for up to 5 h(More)
Glycogen synthase (GS) activity is reduced in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes, despite normal protein expression, consistent with altered GS regulation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in regulation (phosphorylation and deactivation) of GS. To access the potential role of GSK-3 in insulin resistance and reduced GS activity in type 2(More)
BACKGROUND Many adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic treatment are associated with antagonism of monoamine receptors; however, data indicate that important metabolic effects, such as hypertriglyceridemia and impairment in glucose/insulin homeostasis, may not be related to these mechanisms, leading investigators to explore alternative hypotheses.(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular physiological processes in skeletal muscle. Selective cell-permeable reversible inhibitors (INHs) of GSK-3 (CT98014 and CHIR98023 [Chiron, Emeryville, CA] and LiCl) were used to evaluate the role of GSK-3 in controlling glucose metabolism. Acute treatment (30 min) of(More)
A primary human skeletal muscle culture (HSMC) system, which retains cellular integrity and insulin responsiveness for glucose transport was employed to evaluate glucose transport regulation. As previously reported, cells cultured from non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) subjects displayed significant reductions in both basal and acute insulin-stimulated(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of insulin aspart (a new fast-acting human insulin analog) after subcutaneous administration in the deltoid, abdominal, and thigh sites and to compare this profile with regular human insulin (Novolin; Novo Nordisk A/S, Copenhagen). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20 healthy subjects(More)