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How is causation represented in the mind? We often believe that one event has caused another. But can we visually experience two things as causally related? If so, then experiences represent causation. A different question in the vicinity is whether we can ever see that something is causing (or has just caused) something else to happen. In the relevant(More)
A code over GF$(q^m)$ can be imaged or expanded into a code over GF$(q)$ using a basis for the extension field over the base field. The properties of such an image depend on the original code and the basis chosen for imaging. Problems relating the properties of a code and its image with respect to a basis have been of great interest in the field of coding(More)
The time-varying characteristics of non-linear systems responding to typical identification signals are addressed and the potential for identifying some time-varying patterns is shown. Specifically, the instantaneous frequency of system responses is analysed, and shown to characterise non-linear behaviour. The analysis is done via the Hilbert transform.(More)
In a range of settings, private firms manage peer effects by sorting agents into different groups, be they schools, communities, or product categories. This paper considers such a firm, which controls group entry by setting a series of anonymous prices. We show that private provision systematically leads to two distortions relative to the efficient(More)
A code over GF can be imaged or expanded into a code over GF using a basis for the extension field over the base field. The properties of such an image depend on the original code and the basis chosen for imaging. Problems relating the properties of a code and its image with respect to a basis have been of great interest in the field of coding theory. In(More)
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