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OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR-5) on endothelial cell function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and vascularization in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS Endothelial cell migration and tube formation assays were used to demonstrate the direct role of TLR-5 ligation in angiogenesis. Mice with CIA were treated with the TLR-5(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and progressive destruction of the small joints of the hands and feet. Treatment of RA has improved over the past decade. With multiple cytokines well-known now to play a role in the pathogenesis of RA, including tumor necrosis factor alpha,(More)
Oxidative modification of LDL is known to elicit an array of pro-atherogenic responses, but it is generally underappreciated that oxidized LDL (OxLDL) exists in multiple forms, characterized by different degrees of oxidation and different mixtures of bioactive components. The variable effects of OxLDL reported in the literature can be attributed in large(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to characterise the expression, regulation and pathogenic role of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Expression of TLR7 and TLR8 was demonstrated in RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal (NL) synovial tissues (STs) employing immunohistochemistry. The authors next examined the(More)
BACKGROUND 12 months of oral cyclophosphamide has been shown to alter the progression of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease when compared with placebo. However, toxicity was a concern and without continued treatment the efficacy disappeared by 24 months. We hypothesised that a 2 year course of mycophenolate mofetil would be safer, better(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to determine the expression pattern, regulation and function of CCL28 and CCR10 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. METHODS Expression of CCL28 and CCR10 was assessed in RA compared with other arthritis synovial tissues (STs) or fluids (SFs) by histology or ELISA. The factors modulating CCL28 and CCR10 expression(More)
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic fibrosing disorder characterized by the development of large indurated plaques on the skin, primarily in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Skin biopsy reveals an increased frequency of CD34(+) and Factor XIIa+ cells. Microscopic calcification has been reported in the skin biopsies of rare cases(More)
Although the role of IL-7 and IL-7R has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the majority of the studies have focused on the effect of IL-7/IL-7R in T cell development and function. Our novel data, however, document that patients with RA and greater disease activity have higher levels of IL-7, IL-7R, and TNF-α in RA monocytes,(More)