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Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) play a crucial role in type 2 immunity. Mice deficient in ST2, a receptor for the latest member of the IL-1 family, IL-33, have impaired type 2 immune responses. We therefore reasoned that IL-33/ST2 signaling may be involved in the differentiation and activation of AAM during airway inflammation. We report here that(More)
Atopic (AA) and nonatopic (NAA) asthma are characterized by chronic inflammation and local tissue eosinophilia. Many C-C chemokines are potent eosinophil chemoattractants and act predominantly via the CCR3. We examined the expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, and CCR3 in the bronchial mucosa from(More)
We have attempted to identify mRNA for IL-5 in endobronchial mucosal biopsies from asthmatics and controls, using the technique of in situ hybridization. Bronchial biopsies were obtained from 10 asthmatics and 9 nonatopic normal controls. A radio-labeled cRNA probe was prepared from an IL-5 cDNA and hybridized to permeabilized sections. These were washed(More)
Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2(More)
Primary writing tremor (PWT) is considered to be a type of task-specific tremor in which tremor predominantly occurs and interferes with handwriting. The pathophysiology of PWT is not clear. Primary writing tremor may be a variant of essential tremor, a type of focal dystonia such as writer's cramp, or a separate nosological entity. Botulinum toxin(More)
In steroid-resistant (SR) asthma, there is a lack of clinical responsiveness to oral prednisone. Previous studies indicate that this may be explained by the effect of the combination of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 on glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. By contrast, steroid-sensitive (SS) asthmatics respond well to glucocorticoids, and this is(More)
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with Th2 and Th1 differentiated T cells. The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) promotes differentiation of Th2 T cells and secretion of chemokines which preferentially attract them. We hypothesized that there is distinct airways expression of TSLP and chemokines which(More)
Eotaxin and eotaxin-2, acting through CCR3, are potent eosinophil chemoattractants both in vitro and in animal models. In this study we examined the capacity of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 to recruit eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in vivo in human atopic and nonatopic skin. Skin biopsies taken after intradermal injection of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were(More)
Using in situ hybridization, we have shown that activated human peripheral blood eosinophils express mRNA for granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Between 15 and 27% of eosinophils gave positive hybridization signals for GM-CSF mRNA after stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 or interferon gamma, and 4 and 6% after incubation(More)