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Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) play a crucial role in type 2 immunity. Mice deficient in ST2, a receptor for the latest member of the IL-1 family, IL-33, have impaired type 2 immune responses. We therefore reasoned that IL-33/ST2 signaling may be involved in the differentiation and activation of AAM during airway inflammation. We report here that(More)
BACKGROUND In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former(More)
Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2(More)
Eosinophil-derived TGF-beta has been implicated in remodeling events in asthma. We hypothesized that reduction of bronchial mucosal eosinophils with anti-IL-5 would reduce markers of airway remodeling. Bronchial biopsies were obtained before and after three infusions of a humanized, anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab) in 24 atopic asthmatics in a(More)
BACKGROUND Grass pollen injection immunotherapy is effective in patients with summer hay fever, although efficacy must be balanced against possible side effects. The mechanism of immunotherapy is unknown but may be related to its ability to inhibit allergen-induced late responses, which are known to be characterized by infiltration of T lymphocytes,(More)
We have attempted to identify mRNA for IL-5 in endobronchial mucosal biopsies from asthmatics and controls, using the technique of in situ hybridization. Bronchial biopsies were obtained from 10 asthmatics and 9 nonatopic normal controls. A radio-labeled cRNA probe was prepared from an IL-5 cDNA and hybridized to permeabilized sections. These were washed(More)
Asthma is characterized by bronchial mucosal inflammation. Although allergen-induced activation of cells binding allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) through high-affinity receptors (Fc(epsilon)RI) is believed to play some role in asthma, inappropriate synthesis of total or allergen-specific IgE cannot be demonstrated in some ("intrinsic") patients(More)
Atopic (AA) and nonatopic (NAA) asthma are characterized by chronic inflammation and local tissue eosinophilia. Many C-C chemokines are potent eosinophil chemoattractants and act predominantly via the CCR3. We examined the expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, and CCR3 in the bronchial mucosa from(More)
Tissue eosinophilia is characteristic of human atopic allergic inflammation, although the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we test the hypothesis that eosinophil infiltration during allergen-provoked rhinitis in hayfever sufferers may occur as a consequence of activation of a population of cells having a characteristic cytokine profile equivalent(More)
Eotaxin and eotaxin-2, acting through CCR3, are potent eosinophil chemoattractants both in vitro and in animal models. In this study we examined the capacity of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 to recruit eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in vivo in human atopic and nonatopic skin. Skin biopsies taken after intradermal injection of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were(More)