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Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) play a crucial role in type 2 immunity. Mice deficient in ST2, a receptor for the latest member of the IL-1 family, IL-33, have impaired type 2 immune responses. We therefore reasoned that IL-33/ST2 signaling may be involved in the differentiation and activation of AAM during airway inflammation. We report here that(More)
BACKGROUND In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former(More)
Eosinophil-derived TGF-beta has been implicated in remodeling events in asthma. We hypothesized that reduction of bronchial mucosal eosinophils with anti-IL-5 would reduce markers of airway remodeling. Bronchial biopsies were obtained before and after three infusions of a humanized, anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab) in 24 atopic asthmatics in a(More)
Asthma is characterized by bronchial mucosal inflammation. Although allergen-induced activation of cells binding allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) through high-affinity receptors (Fc(epsilon)RI) is believed to play some role in asthma, inappropriate synthesis of total or allergen-specific IgE cannot be demonstrated in some ("intrinsic") patients(More)
Atopic (AA) and nonatopic (NAA) asthma are characterized by chronic inflammation and local tissue eosinophilia. Many C-C chemokines are potent eosinophil chemoattractants and act predominantly via the CCR3. We examined the expression of eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, and CCR3 in the bronchial mucosa from(More)
Tissue eosinophilia is characteristic of human atopic allergic inflammation, although the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we test the hypothesis that eosinophil infiltration during allergen-provoked rhinitis in hayfever sufferers may occur as a consequence of activation of a population of cells having a characteristic cytokine profile equivalent(More)
Eotaxin and eotaxin-2, acting through CCR3, are potent eosinophil chemoattractants both in vitro and in animal models. In this study we examined the capacity of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 to recruit eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in vivo in human atopic and nonatopic skin. Skin biopsies taken after intradermal injection of eotaxin and eotaxin-2 were(More)
BACKGROUND Specific immunotherapy with whole allergen extracts is associated with local accumulation of IFN-gamma+ and CD25+ cells indicating recruitment of activated T-helper type 1 (Th1) and/or T regulatory cells. We have studied allergen-induced, late-phase skin biopsies before and after T cell peptide therapy for evidence of alterations in the pattern(More)
BACKGROUND Mild asthmatics who smoke cigarettes may develop unstable disease and neutrophilic infiltration of the airways, features more usually associated with severe asthmatic disease. The mechanisms giving rise to this response remain unclear. OBJECTIVE To address the hypothesis that smoking increases bronchial mucosal production of IL-17A which acts(More)
BACKGROUND Grass pollen injection immunotherapy is effective in patients with summer hay fever, although efficacy must be balanced against possible side effects. The mechanism of immunotherapy is unknown but may be related to its ability to inhibit allergen-induced late responses, which are known to be characterized by infiltration of T lymphocytes,(More)