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The effects of removing chondroitin sulfate from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan molecules on guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm were investigated in a brain slice preparation of mouse embryos of embryonic day 13 to 15. Slices were grown for 5 hours and growth of dye-labeled axons was traced through the chiasm. After continuous(More)
Bacterial flagellar switching between counterclockwise and clockwise directions is mediated by the coupling of the chemotactic system and the motor switch complex. The conformational changes of FliG are closely associated with this switching mechanism. We present two crystal structures of FliG(MC) from Helicobacter pylori, each showing distinct domain(More)
Using quantitative immunoblotting, we have measured the level of two mammalian neurofilament proteins, the 68-kDa NF-L and the 66-kDa NF-66 (alpha-internexin), in the rat CNS during development. NF-66 is localized in neurons and neuronal processes in both embryonic and postnatal brain. Importantly, NF-66 is more abundant than NF-L in both forebrain and(More)
Neurons generated early in development of the ventral diencephalon have been shown to play a key role in defining the midline and the caudal boundary of the optic chiasm in the mouse retinofugal pathway. These functions have been attributed to a surface bound adhesion molecule, CD44 that is expressed in these chiasmatic neurons. In this study, we(More)
Retinal cell death induced by over-stimulation of glutamate receptors is related to the programmed cell death or apoptosis. However, little is known about the intracellular events that lead to this cell death process in the retina. In this study, we asked if caspase-3 family cysteine proteases regulate cell death in an explant culture of adult rat retina(More)
Intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) produced a substantial damage to the adult rat retina that was largely restricted to inner retinal layers, including the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner, and outer plexiform layers. This retinal damage was significantly reduced by a systemic injection of a low dose of MK-801(More)
Green tea extract (GTE) exerts antioxidative activities in ocular tissues of rats, but high levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can induce oxidative stress. In this study, pharmacokinetics, diurnal variation of oxidative status, antioxidation and transcription factors changes in ocular tissues of rats were investigated. Rats were fed(More)
We have investigated the role of Nogo, a protein that inhibits regenerating axons in the adult central nervous system, on axon guidance in the developing optic chiasm of mouse embryos. Nogo protein is expressed by radial glia in the midline within the optic chiasm where uncrossed axons turn, and the Nogo receptor (NgR) is expressed on retinal neurites and(More)
To identify the putative interacting partners for Kiaa0319-like protein. KIAA0319-like, located near the dyslexia susceptibility locus, DYX8 in chromosome 1p34.3, has been suggested as a positional candidate for developmental dyslexia due to its homology with another gene, KIAA0319 which has been strongly established as a candidate gene for developmental(More)
The complete human 66 kd neurofilament cDNA was isolated and its sequence was determined. Both the DNA and the predicted amino acid sequences showed a high degree of homology to the rat NF-66. This was substantiated by cross hybridization between the human NF-66 probe and rat NF-66 mRNA. Single gene copy was suggested from Southern blot analysis. RNase(More)