Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates… (More)
Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) is an adaptor molecule that is recruited to TLR3 and -4 upon agonist stimulation and triggers activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and expression of type 1 IFNs, which are critical for cellular antiviral responses. We show that Akt is a downstream molecule of TRIF/TANK-binding kinase 1… (More)
TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that detect invading microorganisms and nonmicrobial endogenous molecules to trigger immune and inflammatory responses during host defense and tissue repair. TLR activity is closely linked to the risk of many inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. Therefore, TLR signaling pathways can provide efficient therapeutic… (More)
Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers immune and inflammatory events by sensing endogenous danger signals as well as invading pathogens and contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated effect of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-keto-6-octenedioyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (KOdiA-PC), an oxidized… (More)
The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became… (More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, and the strains used worldwide represent a family of daughter strains with distinct genotypic characteristics. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. bovis BCG Korea, the strain that will be actually used in Korea for vaccine production.