Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers immune and inflammatory events by sensing endogenous danger signals as well as invading pathogens and contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated effect of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-keto-6-octenedioyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (KOdiA-PC), an oxidized… (More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates… (More)
The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became… (More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, and the strains used worldwide represent a family of daughter strains with distinct genotypic characteristics. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. bovis BCG Korea, the strain that will be actually used in Korea for vaccine production.