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Thioredoxin h has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from spinach roots using a procedure devised for leaves. The root thioredoxin (h2 form) differed from chloroplast and animal thioredoxins in showing an atypical active site (Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys) but otherwise resembled animal thioredoxin in structure. Sequence data for a total of 72 residues of(More)
Ferredoxin and the enzyme catalyzing its reduction by NADPH, ferredoxin-NADP reductase (ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase or FNR), were found to be present in roots of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Localization experiments with endosperm of germinating castor beans (Ricinus communis), a classical nonphotosynthetic tissue for cell fractionation studies,(More)
The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 40 °C and pH 5.0. The 3D model structure of L. plantarum GAD proposed that its C-terminal region (Ile454-Thr468) may play an important role in the pH dependence of catalysis.(More)
An extreme diversity of substrates and catalytic reactions of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is considered to be the consequence of evolutionary adaptation driven by different metabolic or environmental demands. Here we report the presence of numerous natural variants of P450 BM3 (CYP102A1) within a species of Bacillus megaterium. Extensive amino acid(More)
Thermophilic l-arabinose isomerase (AI), which catalyzes the interconversion of l-arabinose and l-ribulose, can be used to produce d-tagatose, a sugar substitute, from d-galactose. Unlike mesophilic AIs, thermophilic AIs are highly dependent on divalent metal ions for their catalytic activity and thermostability at elevated temperatures. However, the(More)
UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), which is a pivotal step in the Leloir pathway for d-galactose metabolism. Although GalE is widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, little information is available regarding hyperthermophilic GalE. We overexpressed the TM0509 gene,(More)
There is currently little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which are of potential interest for producing rare sugars. We found a gene (the TM0416 gene) encoding a putative d-tagatose-3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima We overexpressed the TM0416 gene in Escherichia coli and purified the(More)
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