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OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the right nucleus accumbens in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Predominantly bilateral stimulation of the anterior limb of the internal capsule was utilized. METHODS The study was designed as a double-blind sham-controlled crossover study. Patients(More)
A continuing challenge for studies in the neurobiology of drug abuse is to identify and characterize long-lived neuroadaptations that can trigger craving and relapse. We previously reported that rats that had actively self-administered methamphetamine for 5 weeks and were then withdrawn from methamphetamine for 24 h showed marked decreases in(More)
The concept of reprogramming of somatic cells has opened a new era in regenerative medicine. Transduction of defined factors has successfully achieved pluripotency. However, during the generation process of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, genetic manipulation of certain factors may cause tumorigenicity, which limits further application. We report that(More)
Previous studies have suggested that Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 homolog that does not exhibit appreciable affinity for the caspase 8-generated C-terminal Bid fragment (tBid), diminishes sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). This study was performed to determine the mechanism by which Mcl-1 confers TRAIL(More)
Chronic consumption of alcohol represents one of the greatest health and socioeconomic problems worldwide. We report on a 54-year-old patient with a severe anxiety disorder and secondary depressive disorder in whom bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens was carried out. Despite the absence of desired improvement in his primary(More)
Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that is highly regulated and when dysregulated contributes to cancer. The Mcl-1 protein is phosphorylated at multiple sites in response to different signaling events. Phosphorylations at Thr163 (by ERK) and Ser159 (by glycogen-synthase kinase 3beta) have recently been shown to slow and enhance, respectively,(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the BH3 domain of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Noxa only interacts with the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and A1 but not Bcl-2. In view of the similarity of the BH3 binding domains of these anti-apoptotic proteins as well as recent evidence that studies of isolated BH3 domains can potentially underestimate the(More)
Bcl-2, the founding member of a family of apoptotic regulators, was initially identified as the protein product of a gene that is translocated and overexpressed in greater than 85% of follicular lymphomas (FLs). Thirty years later we now understand that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members modulate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by binding and neutralizing(More)
Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves(More)
AIMS Aim was to elucidate the specific role of pattern recognition receptors in vascular dysfunction during polymicrobial sepsis (colon ascendens stent peritonitis, CASP). METHODS AND RESULTS Vascular contractility of C57BL/6 (wildtype) mice and mice deficient for Toll-like receptor 2/4/9 (TLR2-D, TLR4-D, TLR9-D) or CD14 (CD14-D) was measured 18 h(More)