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IO N The ferroelectric photovoltaic (FPV) effect—a photocurrent is created in ferroelectric materials by ultraviolet (UV) light illumination and its direction depends upon ferroelectric polarization—has received considerable attention as a promising alternative to conventional photonic and photovoltaic devices. However, the main drawback of this intriguing(More)
The change in Mn 3d occupation is confirmed by Mn Ledge absorption (Fig. S1). The Mn-L 3 and Mn-L 2 peaks shift to lower energy (due to chemical shift of Mn 2p) and the intensity ratio I(L 3) / I(L 2) increases, consistent with a decrease of the hole carrier concentration by reduction. The intensity ratio of Mn-L 3 and Mn-L 2 indicates a valence state(More)
Nanowires have generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to fully realize their potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some(More)
Herein we demonstrate the epitaxial stabilization of single-crystalline (Gd(x)La(1-x))(2)O(3) films on n-GaAs (001) with a controlled lattice match. (Gd(x)La(1-x))(2)O(3) films have an in-plane epitaxial relationship with a twofold rotation on GaAs (001). Spectroscopic characterization by photoemission and absorption confirms that the band gap of(More)
We present dielectric function e ¼ e 1 þ ie 2 spectra and critical-point energies of Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.5 to 9.0 eV. We reduce artifacts from surface overlayers to the maximum extent possible by performing chemical-mechanical polishing and wet-chemical etching of the surface of a Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 thin film.(More)
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