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OBJECTIVE Most young women initiate sexual activity during adolescence; risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) accompanies this initiation. In this study we estimated the prevalence of the most common STIs among a representative sample of female adolescents in the United States. METHODS Data were analyzed from 838 females who were aged 14 to 19(More)
UNLABELLED OBJECTIVES; We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. METHODS A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26(More)
BACKGROUND Millions of women in the United States receive cervical screening in sexually transmitted disease (STD), family planning, and primary care clinical settings. OBJECTIVE To inform current cervical screening programs. DESIGN Measurement of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among demographically(More)
BACKGROUND Nationally representative surveys of chlamydia and gonorrhea are an important measure of disease burden and progress of screening programs. OBJECTIVE To measure chlamydia and gonorrhea prevalence in the United States. DESIGN Analysis of sexual history information and urine specimens collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination(More)
INTRODUCTION From August to December 2011, a multidisciplinary group with expertise in mathematical modeling was constituted by the GAVI Alliance and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to estimate the impact of vaccination in 73 countries supported by the GAVI Alliance. METHODS The number of deaths averted in persons projected to be vaccinated during(More)
Post-licensure evaluation of vaccines plays an important role in monitoring the progress of immunization programs, demonstrating population impact of vaccines, and providing data for ongoing policy decisions. Two human papillomovirus (HPV) vaccines are licensed and recommended for use in females in the United States, a quadrivalent human HPV vaccine,(More)
BACKGROUND With the recent licensure of a vaccine that protects against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, US women are expected to experience lower rates of cervical cancer. However, surveillance systems must be in place in the US to measure the real-world effectiveness of vaccination programs. Although population-based registries will provide(More)
BACKGROUND Blood exposures in the workplace may put first responders, a group which includes firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics, at increased risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine the prevalence of antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) and risk factors for infection among first responders, we analyzed data from prevalence(More)
BACKGROUND We report the first population-based assessment of national trends in chlamydia prevalence in the United States. METHODS We investigated trends in chlamydia prevalence in representative samples of the U.S. population aged 14 to 39 years using data from five 2-year survey cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999(More)
BACKGROUND Although the role of concurrent sexual partnerships (i.e., having sexual activity with another partner after a current partnership has been established) has been most strongly associated with the transmission of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, its role in the transmission of viral sexually transmitted infections, specifically human(More)