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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of several neurological disorders caused by a CAG repeat expansion. In SCA1, this expansion produces an abnormally long polyglutamine tract in the protein ataxin-1. Mutant polyglutamine proteins accumulate in neurons, inducing neurodegeneration, but the mechanism underlying this accumulation has been unclear. We(More)
Members of the ubiquitous 14-3-3 family of proteins are abundantly expressed in metazoan neurons. The Drosophila 14-3-3zeta gene leonardo is preferentially expressed in adult mushroom bodies, centers of insect learning and memory. Mutants exhibit defects in olfactory learning and memory and physiological neuroplasticity at the neuromuscular junction.(More)
Diminished responses to stimuli defined as habituation can serve as a gating mechanism for repetitive environmental cues with little predictive value and importance. We demonstrate that wild-type animals diminish their responses to electric shock stimuli with properties characteristic of short- and long-term habituation. We used spatially restricted(More)
Osmotactic responses can be modified in an experience-dependent manner and have been used to condition animals in negative or positive associative paradigms. Experience-dependent non-associative defects in avoidance of aversive odors were reported in Drosophila learning mutants. This prompted an examination of the contribution of the mushroom bodies and(More)
Clinical irradiation of the brain induces hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments in some but not all individuals, suggesting the involvement of genetic risk factors. Deficiency of apolipoprotein E (APOE), which is important for the metabolism and redistribution of lipoproteins and cholesterol, increases behavioral impairments after irradiation,(More)
Developmental exposure to methamphetamine (MA) causes long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits. One pathway through which MA might induce these deficits is by elevating glucocorticoid levels. Glucocorticoid overexposure during brain development can lead to long-term disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These disruptions affect(More)
As prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure results in long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits, the increased MA use in women of childbearing age is of great concern. As mice are most commonly used in genetic models, we started to study the potential effects of neonatal MA exposure in female and male mice on brain function 3 months later. As(More)
Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) and female sex are risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear whether apoE4 contributes to behavioral function at younger ages. Standard neuropsychological assessments [intelligence quotient (IQ), attention, and executive function] and a test developed in this laboratory (Memory Island test of spatial learning(More)
Human tests designed to mirror rodent tests of object recognition and spatial navigation were administered to adult cognitively healthy humans. Facial recognition was also assessed. There was no sex difference in facial recognition, consistent with earlier studies. In the object recognition test, the test-retest NINL total scores during the same visit were(More)
Methamphetamine/polysubstance abuse in women of childbearing age is a major concern because of the potential long-term detrimental effects on the brain function of the fetus following in utero exposure. A battery of established tests, including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Conners' Continuous Performance Test II, Behavioral Rating(More)