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De novo microbial genome sequencing reached a turning point with third-generation sequencing (TGS) platforms, and several microbial genomes have been improved by TGS long reads. Bacillus subtilis natto is closely related to the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis Marburg 168, and it has a function in the production of the traditional Japanese fermented(More)
The nervous system of the brachiolaria larva of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera, was characterized using immunohistochemistry with the neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies 1E11 and 1F9 and an anti-serotonin antibody. The antigen recognized by 1F9 was determined by immunoprecipitation, peptide identification by mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning as a(More)
Many metazoans convert the reproductive modes presumably depending upon the environmental conditions and/or the phase of life cycle, but the mechanisms underlying the switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, and vice versa, remain unknown. We established an experimental system, using an integrative biology approach, to analyze the mechanism in the(More)
The ability to produce exoenzymes of a Bacillus subtilis natto starter strain was improved through selection of a rifampicin-resistant phenotype. Proteomic and zymographic analyses showed increased production of cellulolytic and proteolytic enzymes and decreased production of levansucrase. This mutant had a mutation (S487L) in the β-subunit of the RNA(More)
The planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis reproduces both asexually (fissiparous) and sexually (oviparous) and can switch from the asexual mode to the sexual mode. By feeding with mature Bdellocephala brunnea oviparous worms, the fissiparous worms, which do not possess sexual organs, can be converted to fully sexualized worms in a process termed sexualization. As(More)
Asterosap, a group of equally active isoforms of sperm-activating peptides from the egg jelly of the starfish Asterias amurensis, functions as a chemotactic factor for sperm. It transiently increases the intracellular cGMP level of sperm, which in turn induces a transient elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Using a fluorescent(More)
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a fundamental event for fertilization, which is induced in concert with acrosome reaction-inducing substance (ARIS) and asterosap, both of which are components of starfish egg jelly (EJ). During the AR, a spermatozoon undergoes a series of physiological changes, such as in intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP]i), pHi and(More)
We have investigated sexualization of asexual worms in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. During sexualization there is a point from which an animal cannot return to the asexual state (point-of-no-return). To isolate the genes related to the point-of-no-return, we performed differential screening and isolated one novel gene that was expressed specifically(More)
Asexual worms of an exclusively fissiparous strain (the OH strain) of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis keep developing hermaphroditic reproductive organs and eventually undergo sexual reproduction instead of asexual reproduction, namely fission, if they are fed with sexually mature worms of an exclusively oviparous planarian, Bdellocephala brunnea,(More)